View More View Less
  • 1 University of Teramo Department of Food Sciences Via C.R. Lerici 1-64023 Mosciano S.Angelo (TE) Italy
  • 2 CRA Experimental Institute of Cereals SS 16 km 675 71100 Foggia Italy
Restricted access

Several genotypes of the two “ancients wheats” species, Khorasan wheat and emmer, were evaluated in two different marginal areas of central and southern Italy. They were compared with some old and new released varieties of durum wheat, in order to better understand their agronomic potential and their suitability to be grown in those conditions. Khorasan wheat was the worst yielding species with the highest plant height, kernel and hectolitre weight. Yield and kernel weight from emmer resulted intermediate between the other two species, while plant height did not differ from that of durum wheat. Emmer exhibited high protein and gluten content. Wide genetic response to many traits was found within each species grouping; this suggests that some emmer and Khorasan wheat genotypes have the potential to give high quality product and interesting yield in rainfed marginal areas of central and southern Italy.

  • Ephrat, J., Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K., Grama, A., Kagan, J., Karchy, Z. 1968. Items from Israel. Annual Wheat Newsletters. 15 :49–51.

    Karchy Z. , 'Items from Israel ' (1968 ) 15 Annual Wheat Newsletters. : 49 -51.

  • Feldman, M. 1976. Wheats. In: Simonds, N., Longman W. (eds), Evolution of Crop Plants. London, pp. 121.

    Feldman M. , '', in Wheats , (1976 ) -.

  • Fernandez-Figares, I., Marinetto, J., Royo, C., Ramos, J.M., Garcìa del Moral, L.F. 2000. Amino-acid composition and protein and carbohydrate accumulation in the grain of triticale grown under terminal water stress simulated by a senescing agent. Journal Cereal Science 32 :249–258.

    Garcìa del Moral L.F. , 'Amino-acid composition and protein and carbohydrate accumulation in the grain of triticale grown under terminal water stress simulated by a senescing agent ' (2000 ) 32 Journal Cereal Science : 249 -258.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • García del Moral, L.F., Boujenna, A., Yánez, J.A., Ramos, J.M. 1995. Forage production, grain yield, and protein content in dual-purpose triticale grown for both grain and forage. Agronomy Journal 87 :902–908.

    Ramos J.M. , 'Forage production, grain yield, and protein content in dual-purpose triticale grown for both grain and forage ' (1995 ) 87 Agronomy Journal : 902 -908.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • García del Moral, L.F., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D., Royo, C. 2003. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions: an ontogenic approach. Agronomy Journal 95 :266–274.

    Royo C. , 'Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions: an ontogenic approach ' (2003 ) 95 Agronomy Journal : 266 -274.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Abdel-Aal, E.S.M., Sosulski, F.W., Hucl, P. 1998. Origins, characteristics, and potentials of ancient wheats. Cereal Foods World 43 :708–715.

    Hucl P. , 'Origins, characteristics, and potentials of ancient wheats ' (1998 ) 43 Cereal Foods World : 708 -715.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Avivi, L. 1978. High grain protein content in wild tetraploid wheat Triticum dicoccoides Korn. In: Ramanujam, S. (ed.), Proc. 5 th Int. Wheat Genetic Symp. New Delhi, India. 23–28 Feb. 1978, Indian Agric. Res. Inst., New Delhi, India.

    Avivi L. , '', in Proc. 5th Int. Wheat Genetic Symp. New Delhi, India. 23–28 Feb. 1978 , (1978 ) -.

  • Boggini, G., Doust, M.A., Annicchiarico, P., Pecetti, L. 1997. Yielding ability, yield stability, and quality of exotic durum wheat germplasm in Sicily. Plant Breeding 116 :541–545.

    Pecetti L. , 'Yielding ability, yield stability, and quality of exotic durum wheat germplasm in Sicily ' (1997 ) 116 Plant Breeding : 541 -545.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • D’Antuono, L.F. 1994. Obsolete wheat in Italy: an overview on cultivation, use and perspectives for their conservation. In: Padulosi, S., Ager, H., Frison, E. (eds), Report of the IPGRI Workshop on “Conservation and Use of Underutilized Mediterranean Species”. Valenzano, Bari, Italy, 28–30 March 1994. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, pp. 41–48.

    D’Antuono L.F. , '', in Report of the IPGRI Workshop on “Conservation and Use of Underutilized Mediterranean Species”. Valenzano, Bari, Italy, 28–30 March 1994 , (1994 ) -.

  • D’Antuono, L.F., Bravi, R. 1996. The hulled wheat industry: present developments and impact on genetic resources conservation. In: Padulosi, S., Hammer, K., Heller, J. (eds), Hulled Wheats, Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy, 21–22 July 1995. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Rome, pp. 221–233.

    Bravi R. , '', in Hulled Wheats, Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy, 21–22 July 1995 , (1996 ) -.

  • Edmeades, G.O., Bolanos, J., Lafitte, H.R., Rajaram, S., Pfeiffer, W., Fischer, R.A. 1989. Traditional approaches to breeding for drought resistance in cereals. In: Baker, F.W.G. (ed.), Drought Resistance in Cereals. ICSU Press and CAB Int., Wallingford, pp. 27–52.

    Fischer R.A. , '', in Drought Resistance in Cereals , (1989 ) -.

  • Grausgruber, H., Oberforster, M., Ghambashidze, G., Ruckenbauer, P. 2005. Yield and agronomic traits of Khorasan wheat ( Triticum turanicum Jakubz.). Field Crops Research 91 :319–327.

    Ruckenbauer P. , 'Yield and agronomic traits of Khorasan wheat (Triticum turanicum Jakubz.) ' (2005 ) 91 Field Crops Research : 319 -327.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harlan, J.R. 1981. The early history of wheat: earliest traces to the sack of Rome. In: Evans, L.T., Peacock, W.J. (eds), Wheat Science Today and Tomorrow. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 290.

    Harlan J.R. , '', in Wheat Science Today and Tomorrow , (1981 ) -.

  • Heun, M., Schäfer-Pregl, R., Klawan, D., Castagna, R., Accerbi, M., Borghi, B., Salamini, F. 1997. Site of einkorn wheat domestication identified by DNA fingerprinting. Science 278 :1312–1314.

    Salamini F. , 'Site of einkorn wheat domestication identified by DNA fingerprinting ' (1997 ) 278 Science : 1312 -1314.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jenner, C.F., Uglade, T.D., Aspinall, D. 1991. The physiology of starch and protein deposition in the endosperm of wheat. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 18 :211–226.

    Aspinall D. , 'The physiology of starch and protein deposition in the endosperm of wheat ' (1991 ) 18 Australian Journal of Plant Physiology : 211 -226.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jones, D.B., Peterson, M.L., Geng, S. 1979. Association between grain filling rate and duration and yield components in rice. Crop Science 19 :641–644.

    Geng S. , 'Association between grain filling rate and duration and yield components in rice ' (1979 ) 19 Crop Science : 641 -644.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Landi, A., Guarneri, R. 1992. Durum wheat and pasta industries: twenty years of achievement in science and technology. In: Feillet, P. (ed.), Cereal Chemistry and Technology: a Long Past and a Bright Future. 9 th International Cereal and Bread Congress, Paris 1–5 June. INRA, Montpellier, France, pp. 139–142.

    Guarneri R. , '', in Cereal Chemistry and Technology: a Long Past and a Bright Future. 9th International Cereal and Bread Congress, Paris 1–5 June , (1992 ) -.

  • Liu, C.Y., Rathjen, A.J., Shepherd, K.W., Gras, P.W., Giles, L.C. 1995. Grain quality and yield characteristics of D-genome disomic substitution lines in “Langdon” ( Triticum turgidum var. durum ). Plant Breeding 114 :34–39.

    Giles L.C. , 'Grain quality and yield characteristics of D-genome disomic substitution lines in “Langdon” (Triticum turgidum var. durum) ' (1995 ) 114 Plant Breeding : 34 -39.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mazzieri, G., Governatori, C., Petrini, A., Fuselli, D. 2003. Scelta delle varietà di grano duro — Marche. L’Informatore Agrario 36 :53–55.

    Fuselli D. , 'Scelta delle varietà di grano duro — Marche ' (2003 ) 36 L’Informatore Agrario : 53 -55.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Meot, J.M. 1994. Drying. In: European Seminar: quality of durum wheat and pasta. PECEAA, Pole Europeen de Communication et d’Echanges Agro-alimentaires. c/o Regional Rhone-Alpes 78 route de Paris F-69260 Charbonnieres les Bains (1994 January 26–28, Montpellier, France), pp. 75–82.

  • Nass, H.G., Reiser, B. 1975. Grain filling period and grain yield relationships in spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 55 :673–678.

    Reiser B. , 'Grain filling period and grain yield relationships in spring wheat ' (1975 ) 55 Canadian Journal of Plant Science : 673 -678.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nesbitt, M., Samuel, D. 1996. From staple crop to extinction? The archaeology and history of the hulled wheats. In: Padulosi, S., Hammer, K., Heller, J. (eds) Hulled Wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats, vol. 4, Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, pp. 41–100.

    Samuel D. , '', in Hulled Wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats, vol. 4, Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops , (1996 ) -.

  • Nevo, E., Grama, A., Beiles, A., Golenberg, E.M. 1986. Resources of high protein genotypes in wild wheat, Triticum dicoccoides in Israel: predictive method by ecology and allozyme markers. Genetica 68 :215–227.

    Golenberg E.M. , 'Resources of high protein genotypes in wild wheat, Triticum dicoccoides in Israel: predictive method by ecology and allozyme markers ' (1986 ) 68 Genetica : 215 -227.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Percival, J. 1921. The Wheat Plant. A Monograph. Duckworth & Co., London, 463 pp.

    Percival J. , '', in The Wheat Plant , (1921 ) -.

  • Perrino, P. 1993. The farro: an ancient crop to renew. Agricoltura 21 :9–15.

    Perrino P. , 'The farro: an ancient crop to renew ' (1993 ) 21 Agricoltura : 9 -15.

  • Perrino, P., Hammer, K. 1982. Triticum monococcum L. and T. dicoccum Schubler (Syn of T. dicoccon Schrank) are still cultivated in Italy. Genetica Agraria 36 :343–352.

    Hammer K. , 'Triticum monococcum L. and T. dicoccum Schubler (Syn of T. dicoccon Schrank) are still cultivated in Italy ' (1982 ) 36 Genetica Agraria : 343 -352.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Perrino, P., Hammer, K., 1984. The Farro: further information on its cultivation in Italy, utilization, and conservation. Genetica Agraria 38 :303–311.

    Hammer K. , 'The Farro: further information on its cultivation in Italy, utilization, and conservation ' (1984 ) 38 Genetica Agraria : 303 -311.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peterson, C.J., Graybosch, P.S., Baenziger, P.S., Grombacher, A.W. 1992. Genotype and environment effects on quality characteristics of hard red winter wheat. Crop Science 32 :98–103.

    Grombacher A.W. , 'Genotype and environment effects on quality characteristics of hard red winter wheat ' (1992 ) 32 Crop Science : 98 -103.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sissons, M.J., Hare, R.A. 2002. Tetraploid wheat — a resource for genetic improvement of durum wheat quality. Cereal Chemistry 79 :78–84.

    Hare R.A. , 'Tetraploid wheat — a resource for genetic improvement of durum wheat quality ' (2002 ) 79 Cereal Chemistry : 78 -84.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stehno, Z., Manev, I.M. 1999. Preliminary evaluation of Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and polonicum accessions for their possible use in food production. Annual Wheat Newsletter, Vol. 45.

  • Todd, A.G., Spaner, D. 2003. Spring cereals for forage and grain production in a cool maritime climate. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 189 :7–13.

    Spaner D. , 'Spring cereals for forage and grain production in a cool maritime climate ' (2003 ) 189 Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science : 7 -13.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Troccoli, A., Codianni, P. 2005. Appropriate seeding rate for einkorn, emmer, and spelt grown under rainfed condition in southern Italy. European Journal of Agronomy 22 :293–300.

    Codianni P. , 'Appropriate seeding rate for einkorn, emmer, and spelt grown under rainfed condition in southern Italy ' (2005 ) 22 European Journal of Agronomy : 293 -300.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Vavilov, N.I. 1951. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants (translated from the Russian by Chester, S.). Chronica Botanica 13 :1–366.

    Vavilov N.I. , 'The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants (translated from the Russian by Chester, S.) ' (1951 ) 13 Chronica Botanica : 1 -366.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wrigley, C.W., Blumenthal, C., Gras, P.W., Barlow, E.W.R. 1994. Temperature variation during grain filling changes in wheat-grain quality. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 21 :875–885.

    Barlow E.W.R. , 'Temperature variation during grain filling changes in wheat-grain quality ' (1994 ) 21 Australian Journal of Plant Physiology : 875 -885.

    • Search Google Scholar