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  • 1 University College Dublin Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions Group, School of Biology and Environmental Science, College of Life Sciences Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland
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Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) are mycotoxins frequently detected in Fusarium -infected cereal grain. Both toxins are produced by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum during the development of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease. We are developing tools to allow us to simultaneously detect DON and ZON production by Fusarium species. We generated a transgenic F. culmorum strain that expresses fluorescent proteins under the control of promoters of genes that are essential for the biosynthesis of DON (trichodiene synthase; Tri5 ) and ZON (a promoter that drives two polyketide synthetases, Zea1 and Zea2 ). We developed a duplex real time PCR assays for the concurrent analysis of Zea1 and Tri4 (another gene essential for DON production). We are currently generating a multiplex real time PCR version of this assay to detect Zea1 , Tri4 and a plant actin ( Act1 ) gene. This assay can be used to detect DON and ZON producers in grain; Act1 serves as a positive control plant gene in the reaction. We are also developing a multiplex real time RT-PCR assay to detect Zea1 , Tri4 and a F. culmorum/F. graminearum beta-tubulin ( Btub ) gene. Incorporation of the Btub enables normalization of Tri4 and Zea1 transcript expression, relative to fungal abundance.

  • Chen, L., McCormick, S.P., Hohn, T.M. 2000. Altered regulation of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol production in Fusarium graminearum . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 :2062–2065.

    Hohn T.M. , 'Altered regulation of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol production in Fusarium graminearum ' (2000 ) 66 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. : 2062 -2065.

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  • Doohan, F.M., Smith, P., Parry, D.W., Nicholson, P. 1998. Transformation of Fusarium culmorum with the b-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene: A system for studying host-pathogen relationships and disease control. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 53 :253–268.

    Nicholson P. , 'Transformation of Fusarium culmorum with the b-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene: A system for studying host-pathogen relationships and disease control ' (1998 ) 53 Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. : 253 -268.

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  • Gaffoor, I., Trail, F. 2006. Characterization of Two Polyketide Synthase Genes Involved in Zearalenone Biosynthesis in Gibberella zeae . App. Environ. Microbiol. 72 :1793–1799.

    Trail F. , 'Characterization of Two Polyketide Synthase Genes Involved in Zearalenone Biosynthesis in Gibberella zeae ' (2006 ) 72 App. Environ. Microbiol. : 1793 -1799.

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  • McCormick, S.P., Alexander, N.J., Proctor, R.H. 2006. Fusarium Tri4 encodes a multifunctional oxygenase required for trichothecene biosynthesis. Can. J. Microbiol. 52 :636–642.

    Proctor R.H. , 'Fusarium Tri4 encodes a multifunctional oxygenase required for trichothecene biosynthesis ' (2006 ) 52 Can. J. Microbiol. : 636 -642.

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  • Placinta, C.M., D’Mello, J.P.F., Macdonald, A.M.C. 1999. A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium mycotoxins. Animal Feed Sci. Tech. 78 : 21–37.

    Macdonald A.M.C. , 'A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium mycotoxins ' (1999 ) 78 Animal Feed Sci. Tech. : 21 -37.

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