View More View Less
  • 1 Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell’Agroecosistema via S. Michele degli Scalzi 2 56124 Pisa Italy
  • 2 Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento piazza Martiri della Libertà 33 56127 Pisa Italy
Restricted access

Shifts in sowing date change the combination of temperature and photoperiod to which durum wheat is exposed, affecting crop phenology and grain yield. Three durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum ) varieties were field sown at month intervals over a whole year. The number of spikelets on the main culm and the duration of the period of spikelet initiation were recorded. Grain yield, spike number, and mean kernel weight were determined, too. With all sowing dates, plants formed a spike within the main culm and reached the stage of first node detectable. Physiological maturity was achieved only for sowings performed between October and May. Grain yield was highest in November and both yield and yield components were strongly affected by sowing date. The number of spikelets ranged from 11 to 24, according to sowing date and variety. It decreased from November to May in consequence of the shorter initiation period, and we hypothesize that a 12-h-daylength or longer interrupts spikelet initiation. The decrease of spikelet number was the main determinant of yield reduction with the delay of sowing from November to March.

  • Arduini, I., Masoni, A., Ercoli, L., Mariotti, M. 2006. Grain yield, and dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and remobilization in durum wheat as affected by variety and seeding rate. Eur. J. Agron. 25 :309–318.

    Mariotti M. , 'Grain yield, and dry matter and nitrogen accumulation and remobilization in durum wheat as affected by variety and seeding rate ' (2006 ) 25 Eur. J. Agron. : 309 -318.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Baker, C.K., Gallagher, J.N. 1983. The development of winter wheat in the field. 1. Relation between apical development and plant morphology within and between seasons. J. Agric. Sci. 101 :327–335.

    Gallagher J.N. , 'The development of winter wheat in the field. 1. Relation between apical development and plant morphology within and between seasons ' (1983 ) 101 J. Agric. Sci. : 327 -335.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brooking, I.R., Jamieson, P.D., Porter, J.R. 1995. The influence of daylength on final leaf number in spring wheat. Field Crops Res. 41 :155–165.

    Porter J.R. , 'The influence of daylength on final leaf number in spring wheat ' (1995 ) 41 Field Crops Res. : 155 -165.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elhani, S., Martos, V., Rharrabti, Y., Royo, C., García del Moral, L.F. 2007. Contribution of main stem and tillers to durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum ) grain yield and its components grown in Mediterranean environments. Field Crops Res. 103 :25–35.

    García del Moral L.F. , 'Contribution of main stem and tillers to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) grain yield and its components grown in Mediterranean environments ' (2007 ) 103 Field Crops Res. : 25 -35.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ewert, F. 1996. Spikelet and floret initiation on tillers of winter triticale and winter wheat in different years and sowing dates. Field Crops Res. 47 :155–166.

    Ewert F. , 'Spikelet and floret initiation on tillers of winter triticale and winter wheat in different years and sowing dates ' (1996 ) 47 Field Crops Res. : 155 -166.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fischer, R.A., 2008. The importance of grain or kernel number in wheat: A reply to Sinclair and Jamieson. Field Crops Res. 105 :15–21.

    Fischer R.A. , 'The importance of grain or kernel number in wheat: A reply to Sinclair and Jamieson ' (2008 ) 105 Field Crops Res : 15 -21.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Friend, D.J.C. 1965. Ear length and spikelet number of wheat grown at different temperatures and light intensities. Can. J. Bot. 43 :345–353.

    Friend D.J.C. , 'Ear length and spikelet number of wheat grown at different temperatures and light intensities ' (1965 ) 43 Can. J. Bot. : 345 -353.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • George, D.W. 1982. The growing point of fall-sown wheat: A useful measure of physiological development. Crop Sci. 22 :235–239.

    George D.W. , 'The growing point of fall-sown wheat: A useful measure of physiological development ' (1982 ) 22 Crop Sci : 235 -239.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Halse, N.J., Weir, R.N. 1970. Effects of vernalization, photoperiod, and temperature on phenological development and spikelet number of Australian wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 21 :383–393.

    Weir R.N. , 'Effects of vernalization, photoperiod, and temperature on phenological development and spikelet number of Australian wheat ' (1970 ) 21 Aust. J. Agric. Res. : 383 -393.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hay, R.K.M., Kirby, E.J.M. 1991. Convergence and synchrony — a review of the coordination of development in wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 42 :661–700.

    Kirby E.J.M. , 'Convergence and synchrony — a review of the coordination of development in wheat ' (1991 ) 42 Aust. J. Agric. Res. : 661 -700.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Li, C., Cao, W., Dai, T. 2001. Dynamic characteristics of floret primordium development in wheat. Field Crops Res. 71 :71–76.

    Dai T. , 'Dynamic characteristics of floret primordium development in wheat ' (2001 ) 71 Field Crops Res : 71 -76.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Li, F.M., Wang P., Wang J., Xu, J.Z. 2004. Effects of irrigation before sowing and plastic film mulching on yield and water uptake of spring wheat in semiarid Loess Plateau of China. Agric. Water Manage 67 :77–88.

    Xu J.Z. , 'Effects of irrigation before sowing and plastic film mulching on yield and water uptake of spring wheat in semiarid Loess Plateau of China ' (2004 ) 67 Agric. Water Manage : 77 -88.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mahdi, L., Bell, C.J., Ryan, J. 1998. Establishment and yield of wheat ( Triticum turgidum L.) after early sowing at various depths in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Res. 58 :187–196.

    Ryan J. , 'Establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) after early sowing at various depths in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment ' (1998 ) 58 Field Crops Res : 187 -196.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Masoni, A., Arduini, I., Mariotti, M., Ercoli, L., Bonari, E. 2001. Number of spikelets and leaf appearance rate in durum wheat as affected by temperature, daylength and nitrogen availability. Agricol. Medit. 131 :57–65.

    Bonari E. , 'Number of spikelets and leaf appearance rate in durum wheat as affected by temperature, daylength and nitrogen availability ' (2001 ) 131 Agricol. Medit. : 57 -65.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McMaster, G.S., Wilhelm, W.W. 1997. Growing degree-days: one equation, two interpretations. Agric. For. Meteorol. 87 :291–300.

    Wilhelm W.W. , 'Growing degree-days: one equation, two interpretations ' (1997 ) 87 Agric. For. Meteorol. : 291 -300.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Miralles, D.J., Katz, S.D., Colloca, A., Slafer, G.A. 1998. Floret development in near isogenic wheat lines differing in plant height. Field Crops Res. 59 :21–30.

    Slafer G.A. , 'Floret development in near isogenic wheat lines differing in plant height ' (1998 ) 59 Field Crops Res. : 21 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Miralles, D.J., Ferro, B.C., Slafer, G.A. 2001. Developmental responses to sowing date in wheat, barley and rapeseed. Ann. Bot. 71 :211–223.

    Slafer G.A. , 'Developmental responses to sowing date in wheat, barley and rapeseed ' (2001 ) 71 Ann. Bot. : 211 -223.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Motzo, R., Giunta, F. 2007. The effect of breeding on the phenology of Italian durum wheats: from landraces to modern cultivars. Eur. J. Agron. 26 :462–470.

    Giunta F. , 'The effect of breeding on the phenology of Italian durum wheats: from landraces to modern cultivars ' (2007 ) 26 Eur. J. Agron. : 462 -470.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Porter, J.R., Gawith, M. 1999. Temperatures and the growth and development of wheat: a review. Eur. J. Agron. 10 :23–36.

    Gawith M. , 'Temperatures and the growth and development of wheat: a review ' (1999 ) 10 Eur. J. Agron. : 23 -36.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rassaa, N., Ben Haj Salah, H., Latiri, K. 2008. Thermal responses of Durum wheat Triticum durum to early water stress. Consequence on leaf and flower development. C. R. Biologies 331 :363–371.

    Latiri K. , 'Thermal responses of Durum wheat Triticum durum to early water stress. Consequence on leaf and flower development ' (2008 ) 331 C. R. Biologies : 363 -371.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rawson, H.M. 1971. An upper limit for spikelet number per ear in wheat, as controlled by photoperiod. Australian J. Agric. Res. 22 :537–546.

    Rawson H.M. , 'An upper limit for spikelet number per ear in wheat, as controlled by photoperiod ' (1971 ) 22 Australian J. Agric. Res. : 537 -546.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sinclair, T.R., Jamieson, P.D. 2006. Grain number, wheat yield, and bottling beer: An analysis. Field Crops Res. 98 :60–67.

    Jamieson P.D. , 'Grain number, wheat yield, and bottling beer: An analysis ' (2006 ) 98 Field Crops Res. : 60 -67.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Slafer, G.A., Rawson, H.M. 1995. Photoperiod’temperature interactions in contrasting wheat genotypes: Time to heading and final leaf number. Field Crops Res. 44 :73–83.

    Rawson H.M. , 'Photoperiod’temperature interactions in contrasting wheat genotypes: Time to heading and final leaf number ' (1995 ) 44 Field Crops Res. : 73 -83.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stern, W.R., Kirby, E.J.M. 1979. Primordium initiation at the shoot apex in four contrasting varieties of spring wheat in response to sowing date. J. Agric. Sci. 93 :203–215.

    Kirby E.J.M. , 'Primordium initiation at the shoot apex in four contrasting varieties of spring wheat in response to sowing date ' (1979 ) 93 J. Agric. Sci. : 203 -215.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zadoks, J.C., Chang, T.T., Konzak, C.F. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Res. 14 :415–421.

    Konzak C.F. , 'A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals ' (1974 ) 14 Weed Res. : 415 -421.

    • Search Google Scholar