View More View Less
  • 1 Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Rampur, Chitwan Nepal
  • 2 Central Asia and the Caucasus Region Program ICARDA Tashkent 100000 Uzbekistan
  • 3 Global Wheat Program CIMMYT Apdo Postal 6-641 06600 Mexico DF Mexico
Restricted access

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the warm areas of South Asia is severely affected by spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus. There are several inoculum sources suspected to harbor C. sativus during the off season. This study was conducted to determine survival and potential sources of C. sativus inoculum from rice stubble, wheat seed, soil and weeds in three cropping systems (wheat-rice, wheat-fallow and wheat-green manure) during the 2004 and 2005 wheat growing seasons at Rampur, Nepal. Wheat seed, soil and rice stubble in the field, and weed plants in and around research plots were examined for the presence of the pathogen. Koch’s postulates were applied to verify representative strains. The pathogen was found in the wheat seed at moderate to high levels, but was absent in soil samples and rice stubble collected from the field before wheat was sown after rice. Weeds such as Blumea sp., Dichanthium annulatum, Digitaria ciliaris, Phalaris minor, Saccharum officinarum, Axonopus compressus, Brachiaria mutica, Eleusine coracana, Panicum sp., Paspalum scrobiculatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Setaria italica, Zea mays and Zizania aquatica harbored C. sativus. The C. sativus strains isolated from these weeds infected wheat by producing typical spot blotch symptoms. It is concluded that the weeds prevalent in different cropping sequences and on adjacent uncultivated land can serve as secondary hosts for C. sativus. This study presents important new information that could assist in better understanding spot blotch epidemiology and in developing integrated management strategies for spot blotch of wheat in the warmer growing regions of South Asia.

  • Alam, K.B., Shaheed, M.A., Ahmed, A.U., Malaker, P.K. 1994. Bipolaris leaf blight (spot blotch) of wheat in Bangladesh. In: Saunders, D.A., Hettel, G.P. (eds), Wheat in Heat-Stressed Environments: Irrigated, Dry Areas and Rice-Wheat Farming Systems. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 339–342.

  • Bakonyi, J., Aponyi, I., Fischl, G. 1998. Diseases caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana and Drechslera tritici-repentis in Hungary. In: Duveiller, E., Dubin, H.J., Reeves, J., McNab, A. (eds), Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 80–87.

    Fischl G. , '', in Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot , (1998 ) -.

  • Dodman, R.L., Reinke, J.R. 1982. A selective medium for determining the population of viable conidia of Cochliobolus sativus in soil. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 33:287–291.

    Reinke J.R. , 'A selective medium for determining the population of viable conidia of Cochliobolus sativus in soil ' (1982 ) 33 Aust. J. Agric. Res. : 287 -291.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dubin, H.J., Duveiller, E. 2000. Helminthosporium leaf blights of wheat: Integrated control and prospects for the future. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Integrated Plant Disease Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Indian Phytopathological Society, New Delhi, India, pp. 575–579.

    Duveiller E. , '', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Integrated Plant Disease Management for Sustainable Agriculture , (2000 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duczek, L.J. 1981. Number and viability of conidia of Cochliobolus sativus in soil profiles in summer fallow fields in Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 3:12–14.

    Duczek L.J. , 'Number and viability of conidia of Cochliobolus sativus in soil profiles in summer fallow fields in Saskatchewan ' (1981 ) 3 Can. J. Plant Pathol. : 12 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duveiller, E. 2004. Controlling foliar blights of wheat in the rice-wheat systems of Asia. Plant Dis. 88:552–556.

    Duveiller E. , 'Controlling foliar blights of wheat in the rice-wheat systems of Asia ' (2004 ) 88 Plant Dis. : 552 -556.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duveiller, E., Gilchrist, L. 1994. Production constraints due to Bipolaris sorokiniana in wheat: Current situation and future prospects. In: Saunders, D.A., Hettel, G.P. (eds), Wheat in heat-stressed environments: Irrigated, dry areas and rice-wheat farming systems. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 343–352.

    Gilchrist L. , '', in Wheat in heat-stressed environments: Irrigated, dry areas and rice-wheat farming systems , (1994 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Duveiller, E., Kandel, Y.R., Sharma, R.C., Shrestha, S.M. 2005. Epidemiology of foliar blights (spot blotch and tan spot) of wheat in the plains bordering the Himalayas. Phytopathol. 95:248–256.

    Shrestha S.M. , 'Epidemiology of foliar blights (spot blotch and tan spot) of wheat in the plains bordering the Himalayas ' (2005 ) 95 Phytopathol : 248 -256.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gilchrist. L.I. 1985. CIMMYT methods for screening wheat for Helminthosporium sativum resistance. In: Villareal, R.L., Klatt, A.R. (eds), Wheats for more tropical environments, Proceedings of an International Symposium, Mexico, 24–28 Sep 1984. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 149–151.

    Gilchrist L.I. , '', in Wheats for more tropical environments, Proceedings of an International Symposium, Mexico, 24–28 Sep 1984 , (1985 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goulart, A.C.P. 1996. Transmission of Bipolaris sorokiniana from seeds to wheat coleoptile. Summa Phytopathologica 22:5–9.

    Goulart A.C.P. , 'Transmission of Bipolaris sorokiniana from seeds to wheat coleoptile ' (1996 ) 22 Summa Phytopathologica : 5 -9.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hossain, I., Azad, A.K. 1992. Reaction of wheat to Helminthosporium sativum in Bangladesh. Hereditas (Landskrona) 116:203–205.

    Azad A.K. , 'Reaction of wheat to Helminthosporium sativum in Bangladesh ' (1992 ) 116 Hereditas (Landskrona) : 203 -205.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maraite, H., Di Zinno, T., Longrée, H., Daumerie, V., Duveiller, E. 1998. Fungi associated with foliar blight of wheat in warm areas. In: Duveiller, E., Dubin, H.J., Reeves, J., McNab, A. (eds), Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 293–300.

    Duveiller E. , '', in Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot , (1998 ) -.

  • Mathieson, J.T., Rush, C.M., Bordovsky, D., Clark, L.E., Jones, O.R. 1990. Effects of tillage on common root rot of wheat in Texas. Plant Dis. 74:1006–1008.

    Jones O.R. , 'Effects of tillage on common root rot of wheat in Texas ' (1990 ) 74 Plant Dis. : 1006 -1008.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Misra, A.P. 1973. Helminthosporium species occurring on cereals and other Gramineae. U.S.P.L. 480 Project No. A7-CR-133, Grant No. PGIN-223. Tirhut College of Agriculture, Bihar, India.

    Misra A.P. , '', in Helminthosporium species occurring on cereals and other Gramineae , (1973 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Neergaard, P. 1977. Seed Pathology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.

    Neergaard P. , '', in Seed Pathology , (1977 ) -.

  • Pandey, S.P., Kumar, S., Kumar, U., Chand, R., Joshi, A.K. 2005. Sources of inoculum and reappearance of spot blotch of wheat in rice-wheat cropping systems in eastern India. European J. Phytopathol, 111:47–55.

    Joshi A.K. , 'Sources of inoculum and reappearance of spot blotch of wheat in rice-wheat cropping systems in eastern India ' (2005 ) 111 European J. Phytopathol : 47 -55.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Piening, L.J., Orr, D. 1988. Effects of crop rotation on common root rot of barley. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 10:61–65.

    Orr D. , 'Effects of crop rotation on common root rot of barley ' (1988 ) 10 Can. J. Plant Pathol. : 61 -65.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Raemaekers, R.H. 1988. Helminthosporium sativum: Disease complex on wheat and sources of resistance in Zambia. In: Wheat production constraints in tropical environments. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 175–186.

    Raemaekers R.H. , '', in Wheat production constraints in tropical environments , (1988 ) -.

  • Reis, E.M. 1983. Selective medium for isolating Cochliobolus sativus soil. Plant Dis. 67:68–70.

    Reis E.M. , 'Selective medium for isolating Cochliobolus sativus soil ' (1983 ) 67 Plant Dis. : 68 -70.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reis, E.M. 1991. Integrated disease-management — the changing concepts of controlling head blight and spot blotch. In: Saunders, D.A., Hettel, G.P. (eds), Wheat in heat-stressed environments: Irrigated, dry areas and rice-wheat farming system. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 165–177.

    Reis E.M. , '', in Wheat in heat-stressed environments: Irrigated, dry areas and rice-wheat farming system , (1991 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reis, E.M., dos Santos, H.P. 1987. The increased sporulation of Cochliobolus sativus on above-ground tissues of small grains and its relationship to the origin of inoculum in the soil. Fitopatologia Brasileira 12:206–208.

    Santos H.P. , 'The increased sporulation of Cochliobolus sativus on above-ground tissues of small grains and its relationship to the origin of inoculum in the soil ' (1987 ) 12 Fitopatologia Brasileira : 206 -208.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Saari, E.E. 1998. Leaf blight disease and associated soil-borne fungal pathogens of wheat in South and South East Asia. In: Duveiller, E., Dubin, H.J., Reeves, J., McNab, A. (eds), Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 37–51.

    Saari E.E. , '', in Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot , (1998 ) -.

  • Sati, M.C., Dhyani, A.P., Khulbe, R.D. 1993. Seed-plant transmission of Drechslera sorokiniana in bean. Madras Agric. J. 80:33–36.

    Khulbe R.D. , 'Seed-plant transmission of Drechslera sorokiniana in bean ' (1993 ) 80 Madras Agric. J. : 33 -36.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schilder, A.M.C., Bergstrom, G.C. 1995. Seed transmission of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, causal fungus of tan spot of wheat. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 101:81–91.

    Bergstrom G.C. , 'Seed transmission of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, causal fungus of tan spot of wheat ' (1995 ) 101 Eur. J. Plant Pathol. : 81 -91.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sharma, R.C., Kandel, Y.R., Duveiller, E., Shrestha, S.M. 2003a. Characterization of Helminthosporium leaf blight resistance in wheat at different growth stages. In: Rasmussen, J.B., Friesen, T.L., Ali, S. (eds), Proc. 4th Int. Wheat Tan Spot and Spot Blotch Workshop. North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA. pp. 153–158.

    Shrestha S.M. , '', in Proc. 4th Int. Wheat Tan Spot and Spot Blotch Workshop , (2003 ) -.

  • Sharma, R.C., Shrestha, S.M., Duveiller, E. 2003b. Incidence of Bipolaris sorokiniana and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis on wheat in the lowlands of Nepal. In: Rasmussen, J.B., Friesen, T.L., Ali, S. (eds), Proc. 4th Int. Wheat Tan spot and Spot Blotch Workshop. North Dakota State Univ, Fargo, USA. pp. 122–127.

    Duveiller E. , '', in Proc. 4th Int. Wheat Tan spot and Spot Blotch Workshop , (2003 ) -.

  • Sharma, R.C., Duveiller, E. 2004. Effect of Helminthosporium leaf blight on performance of timely and late-seeded wheat under optimal and stressed levels of soil fertility and moisture. Field Crops Res. 89:205–218.

    Duveiller E. , 'Effect of Helminthosporium leaf blight on performance of timely and late-seeded wheat under optimal and stressed levels of soil fertility and moisture ' (2004 ) 89 Field Crops Res. : 205 -218.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sharma, S., Duveiller, E., Basnet, R., Karki, C.B., Sharma, R.C. 2005. Effect of potash fertilization on Helminthosporium leaf blight severity in wheat, and associated increases in grain yield and kernel weight. Field Crops Res. 93:142–150.

    Sharma R.C. , 'Effect of potash fertilization on Helminthosporium leaf blight severity in wheat, and associated increases in grain yield and kernel weight ' (2005 ) 93 Field Crops Res. : 142 -150.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sharma-Poudyal, D., Duveiller, E., Sharma, R.C. 2005. Effects of seed treatment and foliar fungicides on Helminthosporium leaf blight and on performance of wheat in warmer growing conditions. J. Phytopathol. 153:401–408.

    Sharma R.C. , 'Effects of seed treatment and foliar fungicides on Helminthosporium leaf blight and on performance of wheat in warmer growing conditions ' (2005 ) 153 J. Phytopathol. : 401 -408.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Singh, R.V., Singh, A.K., Ahmad, R., Singh, S.P. 1998. Influence of agronomic practice on foliar blight, and identification of alternate hosts in the rice-wheat cropping system. In: Duveiller, E., Dubin, H.J., Reeves, J., McNab, A. (eds), Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., Mexico, pp. 346–348.

    Singh S.P. , '', in Helminthosporium blights of wheat: Spot blotch and tan spot , (1998 ) -.

  • Tinline, R.D. 1977. Multiple infections of sub-crown internodes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by common root rot fungi. Can. J. Bot. 55:30–34.

    Tinline R.D. , 'Multiple infections of sub-crown internodes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by common root rot fungi ' (1977 ) 55 Can. J. Bot. : 30 -34.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tinline, R.D., Spurr, D.T. 1991. Agronomic practices and common root rot in spring wheat: Effect of tillage on disease and inoculum density of Cochliobolus sativus in soil. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 13:258–266.

    Spurr D.T. , 'Agronomic practices and common root rot in spring wheat: Effect of tillage on disease and inoculum density of Cochliobolus sativus in soil ' (1991 ) 13 Can. J. Plant Pathol. : 258 -266.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Whittle, A.M. 1977. Cochliobolus sativus on barley in Scotland. Plant Pathol. 26:67–74.

    Whittle A.M. , 'Cochliobolus sativus on barley in Scotland ' (1977 ) 26 Plant Pathol : 67 -74.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wildermuth, G.B., McNamara, R.B. 1991. Effect of cropping history on soil populations of Bipolaris sorokiniana and common root rot of wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 42:779–790.

    McNamara R.B. , 'Effect of cropping history on soil populations of Bipolaris sorokiniana and common root rot of wheat ' (1991 ) 42 Aust. J. Agric. Res. : 779 -790.

    • Search Google Scholar