View More View Less
  • 1 Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Department of Plant Protection A. Hlinku 2 94976 Nitra Slovakia
Restricted access

Thirty-three washing solutions with various molar concentrations were visually tested as potentially washing solutions for separation of the Western corn rootworm (WCR) eggs from the soil. The results showed that 1.5 or 2.0 molar solution of MgSO4.7H2O, 1.0 and 1.5 molar solution of ZnSO4.7H2O, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 molar solution of NaNO3, MgCl2.6H2Owith molarity of 2.0, NaCl with molarity of 4.0 or 5.0, Ca(NO3)2.4H2O with molarity of 1.5 and 2.0, solution of sucrose with molarity of 1.5 or 2.0, KCl with molarity of 4.0, and NaH2PO4.2H2O with molarity of 2.0, 3.0 or 4.0 were considered as suitable for the separation of WCR eggs from soil and they would be useful tool in integrated pest management for monitoring the density of WCR eggs in maize fields. After separation of the eggs from soil, the eggs were tested for their viability. Percentages of hatched eggs after separation of eggs from soil by washing solutions were not significantly different to control variant. Marginal density of washing solution was determined by beaker and tube test. Marginal density of washing solution, in which the eggs started to move up towards the surface of solution was calculated at the level of 1.086929 g/cm3. As a safe solution density for the separation of the WCR eggs from soil (the density, in which all eggs completely flew to the surface), was considered the level of 1.125 g/cm3.

  • Branson, T.F., Sutter, G.R., Fisher, J.R. 1980. Plant response to stress induced by artificial infestations of western corn rootworm. Environ. Entomol. 9:253–257.

    Fisher J.R. , 'Plant response to stress induced by artificial infestations of western corn rootworm ' (1980 ) 9 Environ. Entomol. : 253 -257.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chandler, J.H., Musick, G.J., Fairchild, M.L. 1966. Apparatus and procedure for separation of corn rootworm eggs from soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:1409–1410.

    Fairchild M.L. , 'Apparatus and procedure for separation of corn rootworm eggs from soil ' (1966 ) 59 J. Econ. Entomol. : 1409 -1410.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Davis, P.M. 1994. Comparison of economic injury levels for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infesting silage and grain corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 87:1086–1090.

    Davis P.M. , 'Comparison of economic injury levels for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infesting silage and grain corn ' (1994 ) 87 J. Econ. Entomol. : 1086 -1090.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • De Ybanez, M.R.R., Garijo, M., Goyena, M., Alonso, F.D. 2000. Improved methods for recovering eggs of Toxocara canis from soil. J. Helminthology 74:349–353.

    Alonso F.D. , 'Improved methods for recovering eggs of Toxocara canis from soil ' (2000 ) 74 J. Helminthology : 349 -353.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dobrinčić, R., Barčić, J.I., Edwards, R.C. 2002. Utvrdivanje štetnosti licinki kukuruzne zlatice (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) u uvjetima Hrvatske (Determining of the injuriousness of the larvae of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Croatian conditions). Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (Poljoprivredna znanstvena smotra) 67:1–9. (in Croatian)

    Edwards R.C. , 'Utvrdivanje štetnosti licinki kukuruzne zlatice (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) u uvjetima Hrvatske (Determining of the injuriousness of the larvae of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Croatian conditions) ' (2002 ) 67 Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (Poljoprivredna znanstvena smotra) : 1 -9.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Douglas, J.G., Chiang, H.C. 1970. Density estimation of corn rootworm egg populations based upon frequency of occurrence. Ecology 51:237–245.

    Chiang H.C. , 'Density estimation of corn rootworm egg populations based upon frequency of occurrence ' (1970 ) 51 Ecology : 237 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Foster, R. E., Ruesink, W.G., Luckmann, W.H. 1979. Northern corn rootworm egg sampling. J. Econ. Entomol. 72:659–663.

    Luckmann W.H. , 'Northern corn rootworm egg sampling ' (1979 ) 72 J. Econ. Entomol. : 659 -663.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Godfrey, L.M., Meinke, L.J., Wright, R.L. 1993. Vegetative and reproductive biomass accumulation in field corn: Response to root injury by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 86:1557–1573.

    Wright R.L. , 'Vegetative and reproductive biomass accumulation in field corn: Response to root injury by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ' (1993 ) 86 J. Econ. Entomol. : 1557 -1573.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gray, M.E., Tollefson, J.J. 1988. Influence of tillage systems on egg populations of western and northern corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 61:186–194.

    Tollefson J.J. , 'Influence of tillage systems on egg populations of western and northern corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ' (1988 ) 61 J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. : 186 -194.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gustin, R.D. 1979. Effect of two moisure and population levels on oviposition of the Western corn rootworm. Environ. Entomol. 8:406–407.

    Gustin R.D. , 'Effect of two moisure and population levels on oviposition of the Western corn rootworm ' (1979 ) 8 Environ. Entomol. : 406 -407.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harnnoi, T., Wijit, A., Morakote, N., Pipitgool, V., Maleewong, W. 1998. Specific gravity of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs. J. Heminthology 72:359–361.

    Maleewong W. , 'Specific gravity of Opisthorchis viverrini eggs ' (1998 ) 72 J. Heminthology : 359 -361.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hein, G.L., Tollefson, J.J., Foster, R.E. 1988. Adult western and northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population dynamics and oviposition. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 61:214–223.

    Foster R.E. , 'Adult western and northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population dynamics and oviposition ' (1988 ) 61 J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. : 214 -223.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Igrc Barčić, J., Bažok, R., Edwards, C.R., Kos, T. 2007. Western corn rootworm adult movement and possible egg laying in fields bordering maize. J. Appl. Entomol. 131:400–405.

    Kos T. , 'Western corn rootworm adult movement and possible egg laying in fields bordering maize ' (2007 ) 131 J. Appl. Entomol. : 400 -405.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jackson, J.J. 1986. Rearing and handling of Diabrotica virgifera and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi. In: Krysan, J.L., Miller, T.A. (eds), Methods for the Study of Pest Diabrotica. Springer-Verlag, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo, pp. 25–47.

    Jackson J.J. , '', in Methods for the Study of Pest Diabrotica , (1986 ) -.

  • Khosbayer, B., Komáromi, J., Kiss, J. 2002. A Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte tojásprodukciója laboratóriumi tenyészetben (Egg production of western corn rootworm) (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in laboratory rearing). Növényvédelem 38:543–545. (in Hungarian)

    Kiss J. , 'A Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte tojásprodukciója laboratóriumi tenyészetben ' (2002 ) 38 Növényvédelem : 543 -545.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kiss, J., Edwards, R., Berger, H., Cate, P., Cean, M., Cheek, S., Derron, J., Festic, H., Furlan, L., Igrc-Barčić, J., Ivanova, I., Lammers, W., Omelyuta, V., Prinzinger, G., Reynaud, P., Sivcev, I., Sivicek, P., Urek, G., Vahala, O. 2005. Monitoring of Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe 1992–2003. In: Vidal, S., Kuhlmann, U., Edwards, R. (eds), Western Corn Rootworm: Ecology and Management. CAB International, pp. 29–40.

  • Leanos, G., De Lourdes, M., Tejeda, L., Sanchez, A.D. 1998. Viabilidad del huevecillo de Diabrotica virgifera zeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) /Egg viability of Diabrotica virgifera zeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Agrociencia 32:241–247. (in Spanish)

    Sanchez A.D. , 'Viabilidad del huevecillo de Diabrotica virgifera zeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) /Egg viability of Diabrotica virgifera zeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ' (1998 ) 32 Agrociencia : 241 -247.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Levine, E., Oloumi, S.H. 1991. Management of diabroticite rootworms in corn. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 36:229–255.

    Oloumi S.H. , 'Management of diabroticite rootworms in corn ' (1991 ) 36 Ann. Rev. Entomol. : 229 -255.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Maikai, B.V., Umoh, J.U., Ajanusi, O.J., Ajogi, I. 2008. Public health implications of soil contaminated with helminth eggs in the metropolis of Kaduna, Nigeria. J. Helminthology 82:113–118.

    Ajogi I. , 'Public health implications of soil contaminated with helminth eggs in the metropolis of Kaduna, Nigeria ' (2008 ) 82 J. Helminthology : 113 -118.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Matsuo, K., Kamiya, H. 2005. Modified sugar centrifugal flotation technique for recovering Echinococcus multilocularis eggs from soil. J. Parasitol. 91:208–209.

    Kamiya H. , 'Modified sugar centrifugal flotation technique for recovering Echinococcus multilocularis eggs from soil ' (2005 ) 91 J. Parasitol. : 208 -209.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Matteson, J.W. 1966. Flotation technique for extracting eggs of Diabrotica spp. and other organisms from soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 59:223–224.

    Matteson J.W. , 'Flotation technique for extracting eggs of Diabrotica spp. and other organisms from soil ' (1966 ) 59 J. Econ. Entomol. : 223 -224.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montgomery, M.E., Musick, G.L., Polivka, J.B., Nielsen, D.G. 1979. Modifiable washing-flotation method for separation of insect eggs and larvae from soil. J. Econ. Entomol. 72:67–69.

    Nielsen D.G. , 'Modifiable washing-flotation method for separation of insect eggs and larvae from soil ' (1979 ) 72 J. Econ. Entomol. : 67 -69.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ozkayhan, M.A. 2006. Soil contamination with ascarid eggs in playgrounds in Kirikkale, Turkey. J. Helminthology. 80:15–18.

    Ozkayhan M.A. , 'Soil contamination with ascarid eggs in playgrounds in Kirikkale, Turkey ' (2006 ) 80 J. Helminthology. : 15 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Palmer, D.F., Windels, M.B., Chiang, H.C. 1976. Changes in specific gravity of developing Western corn rootworm eggs. Environ. Entomol. 5:621–622.

    Chiang H.C. , 'Changes in specific gravity of developing Western corn rootworm eggs ' (1976 ) 5 Environ. Entomol. : 621 -622.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pruess, K.P., Weekman, G.T., Somerhalder, B.R. 1968. Western corn rootworm egg distribution and adult emergence under two corn tillage systems. J. Econ. Entomol. 61:1424–1427.

    Somerhalder B.R. , 'Western corn rootworm egg distribution and adult emergence under two corn tillage systems ' (1968 ) 61 J. Econ. Entomol. : 1424 -1427.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ruesink, W.G., Shaw, J.T. 1983. Evaluation of a trench method for sampling eggs of the northern and western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 76:1195–1198.

    Shaw J.T. , 'Evaluation of a trench method for sampling eggs of the northern and western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) ' (1983 ) 76 J. Econ. Entomol. : 1195 -1198.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Santarem, V.A., Magoti, L.P., Sichieri, T.D. 2009. Influence of variables on centrifuge-flotation technique for recovery of Toxocara canis eggs from soil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 51:163–167.

    Sichieri T.D. , 'Influence of variables on centrifuge-flotation technique for recovery of Toxocara canis eggs from soil ' (2009 ) 51 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo : 163 -167.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Santarem, V.A., Franco, E.D., Kozuki, F.T., Fini, D., Prestes-Carneiro, L.E. 2008. Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 50:279–281.

    Prestes-Carneiro L.E. , 'Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil ' (2008 ) 50 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo : 279 -281.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shaw, J.T., Hummel, H.E. 2003. Diabrotica egg separation from soil: An efficient and fast procedure for monitoring egg stages of corn rootworm populations. Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. 68:73–77.

    Hummel H.E. , 'Diabrotica egg separation from soil: An efficient and fast procedure for monitoring egg stages of corn rootworm populations ' (2003 ) 68 Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. : 73 -77.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shaw, J.T., Ellis, R.O., Luckmann, W.H. 1976. Apparatus and procedure for extracting com rootworm eggs from soil. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Note No. 96.

  • Spike, B.P., Tollefson, J.J. 1989. Relationship of plant phenology to corn yield loss resulting from western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval injury, nitrogen deficiency, and high plant density. J. Econ. Entomol. 82:226–231.

    Tollefson J.J. , 'Relationship of plant phenology to corn yield loss resulting from western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval injury, nitrogen deficiency, and high plant density ' (1989 ) 82 J. Econ. Entomol. : 226 -231.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Takács, J., Balogh, P., Nádasy, M. 2005. Quick scouting of eggs of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, 1868) from soil. Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. 70:693–969.

    Nádasy M. , 'Quick scouting of eggs of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, 1868) from soil ' (2005 ) 70 Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci. : 693 -969.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tinoco-Gracia, L., Bafferas-Serrano, A., Lopez-Valencia, G., Tamayo-Sosa, A.R., Rivera-Henry, M., Quintana-Ramirez, E. 2007. Frequency of Toxocara canis eggs in public parks of the urban area of Mexicali, BC, Mexico. J. Animal Veterinary Advances 6:430–434.

    Quintana-Ramirez E. , 'Frequency of Toxocara canis eggs in public parks of the urban area of Mexicali, BC, Mexico ' (2007 ) 6 J. Animal Veterinary Advances : 430 -434.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Toepfer, S., Kuhlmann, U. 2006. Constructing life-tables for the invasive maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in Europe. J. Appl. Entomol. 130:193–205.

    Kuhlmann U. , 'Constructing life-tables for the invasive maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Col.: Chrysomelidae) in Europe ' (2006 ) 130 J. Appl. Entomol. : 193 -205.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Toepfer, S., Ellsbury, M.M., Eschen, R., Kuhlmann, U. 2007. Spatial clustering of Diabrotica virgifer virgifera and Agriotes ustulatus in small-scale maize fields without topographic relief drift. Entomol. Experiment. Applicata 124:61–75.

    Kuhlmann U. , 'Spatial clustering of Diabrotica virgifer virgifera and Agriotes ustulatus in small-scale maize fields without topographic relief drift ' (2007 ) 124 Entomol. Experiment. Applicata : 61 -75.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tollefson, J.J. 1990. Comparison of adult and egg sampling for predicting subsequent populations of western and northern corn rootworms. J. Econ. Entomol. 83:574–579.

    Tollefson J.J. , 'Comparison of adult and egg sampling for predicting subsequent populations of western and northern corn rootworms ' (1990 ) 83 J. Econ. Entomol. : 574 -579.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ugvári, Z., Hoffmann, P., Kiss, J., Vörös, G. 2004. Az amerikai kukoricabogár (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) tojásainak kimosása talajból (Washing the eggs of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) from the soil). Növényvédelem 40:537–540. (in Hungarian)

    Vörös G. , 'Az amerikai kukoricabogár (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) tojásainak kimosása talajból ' (2004 ) 40 Növényvédelem : 537 -540.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Weiss, M.J., Mayo, Z.B., Newton, J.P. 1983. Influence of irrigation practices on the spatial distribution of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) eggs in the soil. Environ. Entomol. 12:1293–1295.

    Newton J.P. , 'Influence of irrigation practices on the spatial distribution of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) eggs in the soil ' (1983 ) 12 Environ. Entomol. : 1293 -1295.

    • Search Google Scholar