View More View Less
  • 1 Ministry of Agriculture College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Key Lab of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China
Restricted access

To investigate the effect of Zn fertilization on soil Zn fractions and grain Zn concentration in wheat grown on potentially Zn-deficient soil, a field experiment was carried out. The experimental design was split plot consisted of two varieties of wheat (Zhengmai 9023 and Xinong 889) with five Zn levels (0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 45 kg Zn/ha). Results showed that Zn fertilization had no significant effect on wheat yield and grain Zn concentration, and the recovery of Zn fertilizer was only 0.06% to 0.29%. However, the amount of soil DTPA-Zn was increased by 2.3-9.8-folds as Zn supplementation increases during the whole wheat growth stage as compared to the control (Zn0 treatment). Besides, DTPA-Zn was positively correlated with both Loose organic matter bound Zn (LOM-Zn) and Exchange Zn (Ex-Zn), and their partial correlation coefficients were 0.558 and 0.119, respectively. Moreover, these two fractions also showed positive correlation with grain Zn concentration. The amount of LOM-Zn was firstly increased with increasing Zn fertilizer levels then gradually decreased as it get converted to mineral bound Zn (Min-Zn). Zn fertilization in this potentially Zn deficient soil increased the amount of DTPA-Zn in the whole wheat growth stage; however, grain Zn concentration cannot be significantly increased as Zn levels increase, thus suggesting that there are inhibitory factors for Zn absorption and translocation. Furthermore, the amount of soil DTPA-Zn perhaps cannot exactly reflect the capability of soil to supply Zn.

  • Alloway, B.J. 2008. Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition. IZA Publications. International Zinc Association, Brussels, The Netherlands. Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil 302:1–17.

    Alloway B.J. , 'Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition. IZA Publications. International Zinc Association, Brussels, The Netherlands. Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? ' (2008 ) 302 Plant Soil : 1 -17.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cakmak, I., Kalayci, M., Ekiz, H., Braun, H.J., Kilinc, Y., Yilmaz, A. 1999. Zinc deficiency as a practical problem in plant and human nutrition in Turkey: A NATO-science for stability project. Field Crops Res. 60:175–188.

    Yilmaz A. , 'Zinc deficiency as a practical problem in plant and human nutrition in Turkey: A NATO-science for stability project ' (1999 ) 60 Field Crops Res. : 175 -188.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, Z.H., Tian, X.H., Yang, X.W., Lu, X.C., Mai, W.X., Gale, W.J., Cao, Y.X. 2010. Comparison of zinc efficiency among winter wheat genotypes cultured hydroponically in chelator-buffered solutions. J. Plant Nutr. 33:1612–1624.

    Cao Y.X. , 'Comparison of zinc efficiency among winter wheat genotypes cultured hydroponically in chelator-buffered solutions ' (2010 ) 33 J. Plant Nutr. : 1612 -1624.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Genc, Y., McDonald, G.K. 2008. Domesticated emmer wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] as a source for improvement of zinc efficiency in durum wheat. Plant Soil 310:67–75.

    McDonald G.K. , 'Domesticated emmer wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] as a source for improvement of zinc efficiency in durum wheat ' (2008 ) 310 Plant Soil : 67 -75.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gibson, R.S. 2006. Zinc: The missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries. Procs. of the Nutrition Soc. 65:51–60.

    Gibson R.S. , 'Zinc: The missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries ' (2006 ) 65 Procs. of the Nutrition Soc. : 51 -60.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hajiboland, R., Yang, X.E., Römheld, V. 2003. Effects of bicarbonate and high pH on growth of Zn-efficiency and Zn-inefficient genotypes of rice, wheat and rye. Plant Soil 250:349–357.

    Römheld V. , 'Effects of bicarbonate and high pH on growth of Zn-efficiency and Zn-inefficient genotypes of rice, wheat and rye ' (2003 ) 250 Plant Soil : 349 -357.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hao, M.D., Wei, X.R., Dang, T.H. 2003. Effect of long-term applying zinc fertilizer on wheat yield and content of zinc in dryland. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Sci. 9:377–380. (in Chinese)

    Dang T.H. , 'Effect of long-term applying zinc fertilizer on wheat yield and content of zinc in dryland ' (2003 ) 9 Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Sci. : 377 -380.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jalali, M., Khanlari, Z.V. 2008. Effect of aging process on the fractionation of heavy metals in some calcareous soils of Iran. Geoderma 143:26–40.

    Khanlari Z.V. , 'Effect of aging process on the fractionation of heavy metals in some calcareous soils of Iran ' (2008 ) 143 Geoderma : 26 -40.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kalayci, M., Torun, B., Eker, S., Aydin, M., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I. 1999. Grain yield, zinc efficiency and zinc concentration of wheat cultivars grown in a zinc-deficiency calcareous soil in field and greenhouse. Field Crops Res. 63:87–98.

    Cakmak I. , 'Grain yield, zinc efficiency and zinc concentration of wheat cultivars grown in a zinc-deficiency calcareous soil in field and greenhouse ' (1999 ) 63 Field Crops Res. : 87 -98.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lindsay, W.L., Cox, F.R. 1985. Micronutrient soil testing for the tropics. Fertilizer Res. 7:169–200.

    Cox F.R. , 'Micronutrient soil testing for the tropics ' (1985 ) 7 Fertilizer Res. : 169 -200.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Liu, H.M., Zhang, X.C., Su, S.H. 2008. Available zinc content and related properties of main soil in the loess plateau. J. Agro-Environment Sci. 27:898–902. (in Chinese)

    Su S.H. , 'Available zinc content and related properties of main soil in the loess plateau ' (2008 ) 27 J. Agro-Environment Sci. : 898 -902.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • López-Valdivia, L.M., Fernández, M.D., Obrador, A., Alvarez, J.M. 2002. Zinc transformations in acidic soil and zinc efficiency on maize by adding six organic zinc complexes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:1455–1460.

    Alvarez J.M. , 'Zinc transformations in acidic soil and zinc efficiency on maize by adding six organic zinc complexes ' (2002 ) 50 J. Agric. Food Chem. : 1455 -1460.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ozturk, L., Yazici, M.A., Yucel, C., Torun, A., Cekic, C., Bagci, A., Ozkan, H., Braun, H.J., Sayers, Z., Cakmak, I. 2006. Concentration and localization of zinc during seed development and germination in wheat. Physiologia Plantarum 128:144–152.

    Cakmak I. , 'Concentration and localization of zinc during seed development and germination in wheat ' (2006 ) 128 Physiologia Plantarum : 144 -152.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Palmgren, M.G., Clemens, S., Williams, L.E., Krämer, U., Borg, S., Schjørring, J.K., Sanders, D. 2008. Zinc biofortification of cereals: Problems and solutions. Trends in Plant Sci. 13:464–473.

    Sanders D. , 'Zinc biofortification of cereals: Problems and solutions ' (2008 ) 13 Trends in Plant Sci. : 464 -473.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peleg, Z., Saranga, Y., Yazici, A., Fahima, T., Ozturk, L., Cakmak, I. 2008. Grain zinc, iron and protein concentrations and zinc-efficiency in wild emmer wheat under contrasting irrigation regimes. Plant Soil 306:57–58.

    Cakmak I. , 'Grain zinc, iron and protein concentrations and zinc-efficiency in wild emmer wheat under contrasting irrigation regimes ' (2008 ) 306 Plant Soil : 57 -58.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pradhan, Y., Kanwar, B.B. 1990. Contribution of zinc fraction to available zinc extracted, by some chemical methods, from rice growing soils of North-Western Himalayas. Plant Soil 126:149–153.

    Kanwar B.B. , 'Contribution of zinc fraction to available zinc extracted, by some chemical methods, from rice growing soils of North-Western Himalayas ' (1990 ) 126 Plant Soil : 149 -153.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Prasad, A.S. 2007. Zinc: Mechanisms of host defense. J. Nutrition 137:1345–1349.

    Prasad A.S. , 'Zinc: Mechanisms of host defense ' (2007 ) 137 J. Nutrition : 1345 -1349.

  • Rengel, Z., Batten, G.D., Crowley, D.E. 1999. Agronomic approaches for improving the micronutrient density in edible portions of field crops. Field Crops Res. 60:27–40.

    Crowley D.E. , 'Agronomic approaches for improving the micronutrient density in edible portions of field crops ' (1999 ) 60 Field Crops Res. : 27 -40.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schlegel, R., Cakmak, I., Torun, B., Eker, S., Tolay, I., Ekiz, H., Kalayci, M., Braun, H.J. 1998. Screening for zinc efficiency among wheat relatives and their utilization for alien gene transfer. Euphytica 100:281–286.

    Braun H.J. , 'Screening for zinc efficiency among wheat relatives and their utilization for alien gene transfer ' (1998 ) 100 Euphytica : 281 -286.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shivay, Y.S., Kumar, D., Prasad, R. 2008. Effect of zinc-enriched urea on productivity, zinc uptake and efficiency of an aromatic rice-wheat cropping system. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 81:229–234.

    Prasad R. , 'Effect of zinc-enriched urea on productivity, zinc uptake and efficiency of an aromatic rice-wheat cropping system ' (2008 ) 81 Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems : 229 -234.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Torun, B., Bozbay, G., Gultekin, I., Braun, H.J., Ekiz, H., Cakmak, I. 2000. Differences in shoot growth and zinc concentration of 164 bread wheat genotypes in a zinc-deficient calcareous soil. J. Plant Nutr. 23:1251–1265.

    Cakmak I. , 'Differences in shoot growth and zinc concentration of 164 bread wheat genotypes in a zinc-deficient calcareous soil ' (2000 ) 23 J. Plant Nutr. : 1251 -1265.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wei, X.R., Hao, M.D., Zhang, C.X. 2005. Zinc fractions and availability in the soil of the loess plateau after long-term continuous application of zinc fertilizer. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 38:1386–1393. (in Chinese)

    Zhang C.X. , 'Zinc fractions and availability in the soil of the loess plateau after long-term continuous application of zinc fertilizer ' (2005 ) 38 Scientia Agricultura Sinica : 1386 -1393.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yang, X.E., Chen, W.R., Feng, Y. 2007. Improving human micronutrient nutrition through biofortification in the soil-plant system: China as a case study. Environ. Geochem. Health 29:413–428.

    Feng Y. , 'Improving human micronutrient nutrition through biofortification in the soil-plant system: China as a case study ' (2007 ) 29 Environ. Geochem. Health : 413 -428.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yilmaz, A., Ekiz, H., Gultekin, I., Torun, B., Barut, H., Karanlik, S., Cakmak, I. 1998. Effect of seed zinc content on grain yield and zinc concentration of wheat grown in zinc-deficient calcareous soils. J. Plant Nutr. 21:2257–2264.

    Cakmak I. , 'Effect of seed zinc content on grain yield and zinc concentration of wheat grown in zinc-deficient calcareous soils ' (1998 ) 21 J. Plant Nutr. : 2257 -2264.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang, Y., Song, Q.C., Yan, J., Tang, J.W., Zhao, R.R., Zhang, Y.Q., He, Z.H., Zou, C.Q., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. 2010. Mineral element concentrations in grains of Chinese wheat cultivars. Euphytica 174:303–313.

    Ortiz-Monasterio I. , 'Mineral element concentrations in grains of Chinese wheat cultivars ' (2010 ) 174 Euphytica : 303 -313.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhu, B., Qing, C.L., Mu, S.S. 2002. Bioavailability of exotic zinc and cadmium in purple soil. Chinese J. Appl. Ecol. 13:555–558. (in Chinese)

    Mu S.S. , 'Bioavailability of exotic zinc and cadmium in purple soil ' (2002 ) 13 Chinese J. Appl. Ecol. : 555 -558.

    • Search Google Scholar