Nineteen landrace populations of Turkish cultivated emmer wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] were characterized in terms of three isoenzyme [Endopeptidase-1, Aminopeptidase-1 and Aminopeptidase-2] systems, by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. For overall loci, the mean number of alleles and effective alleles were observed as 2.00 and 1.37, respectively. The mean value of gene diversity and average gene diversity, in overall loci, were detected as 0.23 and 0.07, respectively. Actual genetic differentiation and gene flow between different populations were calculated as 0.19 and 0.11, respectively. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that eco-geographical variables have significant effects on isoenzyme genetic diversity. Landraces that have desirable agronomical and immunological resistance traits that makes them adaptable to climate change and different eco-geographical conditions are important genetic resources to utilise for the improvement of future crops of modern wheat varieties. There is a need to assess the genetic structure and genetic composition of important agronomical characters and to determine the magnitude of the genetic diversity currently conserved in the germplasm of landraces, both in farm fields and in ex situ collections and finally, strategies for the effective use of landraces, particularly of emmer wheat, should be planned and implemented in Turkey were discussed.