View More View Less
  • 1 Escuela Politécnica del Ejercito Departmento de Ciencias de la Vida Sangolquí Ecuador
  • | 2 INIAP Programa de Cereales, Estación Experimental Santa Catalina Quito Ecuador
  • | 3 SENESCYT Programa Prometeo, Secretaría Nacional de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Quito Ecuador
  • | 4 International Rice Research Institute DAPO Box 7777 Metro Manila Philippines
Restricted access

Cross Mark

In this study we analyzed the performance of three wheat varieties in relation to gluten content under high-altitude growing conditions in the Andes of Ecuador. A field experiment was conducted at 3058 meters above sea level during 2009 using adapted wheat cultivar Cojitambo, cv. Carnavalero, and cv. Sibambe. Transcript accumulations of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) genes were also evaluated during grain development using qRT-PCR. We recorded the expression profile of HMW-GS genes during 41 days and showed a coordinated pattern of induction with significant higher levels at 82–86 days. Transcript accumulation of 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Bx7, 1Ax1, and 1By9 genes were analyzed in more details during this period. The assay highlighted the specific contribution of 1Bx7, 1Dy10, and 1Dx5 during gluten formation in Ecuadorian wheat varieties. Under Andean highlands conditions, cv. Carnavalero showed the higher values of total agglomerated protein upon hydration and higher levels of expression of particular HMW-GS genes. The data suggest a correlation between wet gluten content and HMW-GS genes expression. Our study contributes to understand gluten formation in wheat endosperm under high-altitude conditions in the Andes.

  • Altenbach, S.B., Kothari, K.M., Lieu, D. 2002. Environmental conditions during wheat grain development alter temporal regulation of major gluten protein genes. Cereal Chem. 79:279–285.

    Lieu D. , 'Environmental conditions during wheat grain development alter temporal regulation of major gluten protein genes ' (2002 ) 79 Cereal Chem. : 279 -285.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anjum, F.M., Khan, M.R., Din, A., Saeed, M., Pasha, I., Arshad, M.U. 2007. Wheat gluten: High molecular weight glutenin subunits — structure, genetics, and relation to dough elasticity. J. Food Sci. 72:56–63.

    Arshad M.U. , 'Wheat gluten: High molecular weight glutenin subunits — structure, genetics, and relation to dough elasticity ' (2007 ) 72 J. Food Sci. : 56 -63.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barro, F., Rooke, L., Bekes, F., Gras, P., Tatham, A.S., Fido, R., Lazzeri, P.A., Shewry, P.R., Barcelo, P. 1997. Transformation of wheat with high molecular weight subunit genes results in improved functional properties. Nature Biotechnol. 15:1295–1299.

    Barcelo P. , 'Transformation of wheat with high molecular weight subunit genes results in improved functional properties ' (1997 ) 15 Nature Biotechnol. : 1295 -1299.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Broglie, R., Coruzzi, G., Lamppa, G., Keith, B., Chua, N.H. 1983. Structural analysis of nuclear genes coding for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Nature Biotechnol. 1:55–61.

    Chua N.H. , 'Structural analysis of nuclear genes coding for the precursor to the small subunit of wheat ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase ' (1983 ) 1 Nature Biotechnol. : 55 -61.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Czechowski, T., Bari, R.P., Stitt, M., Sheible, W.R., Udvardi, M.K. 2004. Real-time RT-PCR profiling of over 1400 Arabidopsis transcription factors: unprecedented sensitivity reveals novel root-and shoot-specific genes. Plant J. 38:366–379.

    Udvardi M.K. , 'Real-time RT-PCR profiling of over 1400 Arabidopsis transcription factors: unprecedented sensitivity reveals novel root-and shoot-specific genes ' (2004 ) 38 Plant J. : 366 -379.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Greene, F. 1983. Expression of storange protein genes in developong wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Plant Physiol. 71:40–46.

    Greene F. , 'Expression of storange protein genes in developong wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds ' (1983 ) 71 Plant Physiol. : 40 -46.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grimwade, B., Tatham, A.S., Freedman, R.B., Shewry, P.R., Napier, J.A. 1996. Comparison of the expression patterns of wheat gluten proteins and proteins involved in the secretory pathway in developing caryopses of wheat. Plant Mol. Biol. 30:1067–1073.

    Napier J.A. , 'Comparison of the expression patterns of wheat gluten proteins and proteins involved in the secretory pathway in developing caryopses of wheat ' (1996 ) 30 Plant Mol. Biol. : 1067 -1073.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jaya, E. 2010. Evaluation of nutritional and nutraceutical potential of donuts made with a mixture of flour quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and wheat flour (Triticum vulgare). BSc. Thesis, Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, Riobamba, Ecuador.

    Jaya E. , '', in Evaluation of nutritional and nutraceutical potential of donuts made with a mixture of flour quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and wheat flour (Triticum vulgare) , (2010 ) -.

  • Johansson, E., Henriksson, P., Svensson, G., Heneen, W.K. 1993. Detection, chromosomal location and evaluation of the functional value of a novel high Mr glutenin subunit found in Swedish wheats. J. Cereal Sci. 17:237–245.

    Heneen W.K. , 'Detection, chromosomal location and evaluation of the functional value of a novel high Mr glutenin subunit found in Swedish wheats ' (1993 ) 17 J. Cereal Sci. : 237 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Labuschagne, M.T., Elago, O., Koen, E. 2009. The influence of temperature extremes on some quality and starch characteristics in bread, biscuit and durum wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 49:184–189.

    Koen E. , 'The influence of temperature extremes on some quality and starch characteristics in bread, biscuit and durum wheat ' (2009 ) 49 J. Cereal Sci. : 184 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Li, Z., Hansen, J.L., Liu, Y., Zemetra, R.S., Berger, P.H. 2004. Using real-time PCR to determine transgene copy number in wheat. Plant Mol. Biol. R. 22:179–188.

    Berger P.H. , 'Using real-time PCR to determine transgene copy number in wheat ' (2004 ) 22 Plant Mol. Biol. R. : 179 -188.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Paolacci, A.R., Tanzarella, O.A., Porceddu, E., Ciaffi, M. 2009. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in wheat. BMC Mol. Biol. 10:11–38.

    Ciaffi M. , 'Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in wheat ' (2009 ) 10 BMC Mol. Biol. : 11 -38.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Payne, P.I., Corfield, K.G., Holt, L.M., Blackman, J.A. 1981. Correlations between the inheritance of certain high-molecular weight subunits of glutenin and bread-making quality in progenies of six crosses of bread wheat. J. Sci. Food Agric. 32:51–60.

    Blackman J.A. , 'Correlations between the inheritance of certain high-molecular weight subunits of glutenin and bread-making quality in progenies of six crosses of bread wheat ' (1981 ) 32 J. Sci. Food Agric. : 51 -60.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Payne, P.I. 1987. Genetics of wheat storage proteins and the effect of allelic variation on bread-making quality. Plant Biol. 38:141–153.

    Payne P.I. , 'Genetics of wheat storage proteins and the effect of allelic variation on bread-making quality ' (1987 ) 38 Plant Biol. : 141 -153.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peña, E., Bernardo, A., Soler, C., Jouve, N. 2005. Relationship between common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten proteins and dough rheological properties. Euphytica 143:169–177.

    Jouve N. , 'Relationship between common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten proteins and dough rheological properties ' (2005 ) 143 Euphytica : 169 -177.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Radovanovic, C.N., Cloutier, S., Brown, D., Humphreys, D.G., Lukow, O.M. 2002. Genetic variance for gluten strength contributed by high molecular weight glutenin proteins. Cereal Chem. 79:843–849.

    Lukow O.M. , 'Genetic variance for gluten strength contributed by high molecular weight glutenin proteins ' (2002 ) 79 Cereal Chem. : 843 -849.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rooke, L., Békés, F., Fido, R., Barro, F., Gras, P., Tatham, A.S., Barcelo, P., Lazzeri, P., Shewry, P.R. 1999. Overexpression of a gluten protein in transgenic wheat results in greatly increased dough strength. J. Cereal Sci. 30:115–120.

    Shewry P.R. , 'Overexpression of a gluten protein in transgenic wheat results in greatly increased dough strength ' (1999 ) 30 J. Cereal Sci. : 115 -120.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shewry, P.R., Tatham, A.S., Barro, F., Barcelo, P., Lazzeri, P. 1995. Biotechnology of breadmaking: unraveling and manipulating the multi-protein gluten complex. Nat. Biotechnol. 13:1185–1190.

    Lazzeri P. , 'Biotechnology of breadmaking: unraveling and manipulating the multi-protein gluten complex ' (1995 ) 13 Nat. Biotechnol. : 1185 -1190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Shewry, P.R., Halford, N.G., Tatham, A.S., Popineau, Y., Lafiandra, D., Belton, P. 2003. The high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin and their role in determining wheat processing properties. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 45:221–302.

    Belton P. , 'The high molecular weight subunits of wheat glutenin and their role in determining wheat processing properties ' (2003 ) 45 Adv. Food Nutr. Res. : 221 -302.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Teran, D. 2010. Introduction and agronomic evaluation of seven cultivars and two promissory lines of wheat (Triticum vulgare. L) in three locations of the Chimborazo province. BSc. thesis, Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo, Riobamba, Ecuador.

    Teran D. , '', in Introduction and agronomic evaluation of seven cultivars and two promissory lines of wheat (Triticum vulgare. L) in three locations of the Chimborazo province , (2010 ) -.

  • Tosi, P., Parker, M., Gritsch, C.S., Carzaniga, R., Martin, B., Shewry, P.R. 2009. Trafficking of storage proteins in developing grain of wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 60:619–627.

    Shewry P.R. , 'Trafficking of storage proteins in developing grain of wheat ' (2009 ) 60 J. Exp. Bot. : 619 -627.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wieser, H., Zimmermann, G. 2000. Importance of amounts and proportions of high molecular weight subunits of glutenin for wheat quality. Eur. Food Res. Techno. 210:324–330.

    Zimmermann G. , 'Importance of amounts and proportions of high molecular weight subunits of glutenin for wheat quality ' (2000 ) 210 Eur. Food Res. Techno. : 324 -330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yue, S.J., Li, H., Li, Y.W., Zhu, Y.F., Guo, J.K., Liu, Y.J., Chen, Y., Jia, X. 2008. Generation of transgenic wheat lines with altered expression levels of 1Dx5 high-molecular weight glutenin subunit by RNA interference. J. Cereal Sci. 47:153–161.

    Jia X. , 'Generation of transgenic wheat lines with altered expression levels of 1Dx5 high-molecular weight glutenin subunit by RNA interference ' (2008 ) 47 J. Cereal Sci. : 153 -161.

    • Search Google Scholar