View More View Less
  • 1 Hungarian Academy of Sciences Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research H-2462 Martonvásár Hungary
Restricted access

Studies on plant development phases and yield component patterns of wheat are essential for a better understanding of adaptation in wheat. Our main aim was to carry out detailed phenological analyses of 18 wheat genotypes in three sowing times for determining the effect of sowing date on individual phenophases, and yield components. Sowing date had the single greatest effect on the start of intensive stem elongation. The longer vegetation period had a favourable effect on main spike length and on the spikelet number per spike, but had no influence on thousand-kernel weight and grain number per spike. The time between the first node appearance and start of intensive stem elongation had a significant effect on the number of reproductive tillers. A close association (R2 = 0.191) was observed during the second phase of intensive stem elongation between the boot stage-to-heading interval and the number of spikelets per spike. Two-way analysis of variance on the yield components showed that the sowing date, as a main factor, had a weaker effect on the phenophases than on morphological and developmental parameters. The insensitive allele of the Ppd-D1 gene shortened the time required for first node appearance and heading both in autumn and spring sowing.

  • Beales, J., Turner, A., Griffiths, S., Snape, J.W., Laurie, D.A. 2007. Apseudo-response regulator is misexpressed in the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1 a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 115:721–733.

    Laurie D.A. , 'Apseudo-response regulator is misexpressed in the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1 a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ' (2007 ) 115 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 721 -733.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Börner, A., Worland, A.J., Plaschke, J., Schumann, E., Law, C.N. 1993. Pleiotropic effects of genes for reduced height (Rht) and day-length insensitivity (Ppd) on yield and its components for wheat grown in middle Europe. Plant Breeding 111:204–216.

    Law C.N. , 'Pleiotropic effects of genes for reduced height (Rht) and day-length insensitivity (Ppd) on yield and its components for wheat grown in middle Europe ' (1993 ) 111 Plant Breeding : 204 -216.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Borras, G., Romagosa I., van Eeuwijk, F., Slafer, G.A. 2009. Genetic variability in duration of pre-heading phases and relationships with leaf appearance and tillering dynamics in a barley population. Field Crops Res. 113:95–104.

    Slafer G.A. , 'Genetic variability in duration of pre-heading phases and relationships with leaf appearance and tillering dynamics in a barley population ' (2009 ) 113 Field Crops Res. : 95 -104.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, Y., Carver, B.F., Wang, S., Zhang, F., Yan, L. 2009. Genetic loci associated with stem elongation and winter dormancy release in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 118:881–889.

    Yan L. , 'Genetic loci associated with stem elongation and winter dormancy release in wheat ' (2009 ) 118 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 881 -889.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, Y., Carver, B.F., Wang, S., Cao, S., Yan, L. 2010. Genetic regulation of developmental phases in winter wheat. Mol. Breed. 26:573–582.

    Yan L. , 'Genetic regulation of developmental phases in winter wheat ' (2010 ) 26 Mol. Breed. : 573 -582.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cockram, J., Chiapparino, E., Taylor, S.A., Stamati, K., Donini, P., Laurie, D.A., O’Sullivan, D.M. 2007. Haplotype analysis of vernalization loci in European barley germplasm reveals novel VRN-H1 alleles and a predominant winter VRN-H1/VRN-H2 multi-locus haplotype. Theor. Appl. Genet. 115:993–1001.

    O’Sullivan D.M. , 'Haplotype analysis of vernalization loci in European barley germplasm reveals novel VRN-H1 alleles and a predominant winter VRN-H1/VRN-H2 multi-locus haplotype ' (2007 ) 115 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 993 -1001.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Distelfeld, A., Li, C., Dubcovsky, J. 2009. Regulation of flowering in temperate cereals. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12:178–184.

    Dubcovsky J. , 'Regulation of flowering in temperate cereals ' (2009 ) 12 Current Opinion in Plant Biology : 178 -184.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dubcovsky, J., Lijavetzky, D., Appendino, L., Tranquilli, G. 1998. Comparative RFLP mapping of Triticum monococcum genes controlling vernalization requirement. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97:968–975.

    Tranquilli G. , 'Comparative RFLP mapping of Triticum monococcum genes controlling vernalization requirement ' (1998 ) 97 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 968 -975.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fu, D., Szücs, P., Yan, L., Helguera, M., Skinner, J.S., von Zitzewitz, J., Hayes, P.M., Dubcovsky, J. 2005. Large deletions within the first intron in VRN-1 are associated with spring growth habit in barley and wheat. Mol. Gen. Genomics 273:54–65.

    Dubcovsky J. , 'Large deletions within the first intron in VRN-1 are associated with spring growth habit in barley and wheat ' (2005 ) 273 Mol. Gen. Genomics : 54 -65.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A., Miralles, D.J. 2002. Vernalization and photoperiod response in wheat pre-flowering reproductive phases. Field Crops Res. 74:183–195.

    Miralles D.J. , 'Vernalization and photoperiod response in wheat pre-flowering reproductive phases ' (2002 ) 74 Field Crops Res. : 183 -195.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A., Miralles, D.J. 2003a. Grain and floret number in response to photoperiod during stem elongation in fully and slightly vernalized wheats. Field Crops Res. 81:17–27.

    Miralles D.J. , 'Grain and floret number in response to photoperiod during stem elongation in fully and slightly vernalized wheats ' (2003 ) 81 Field Crops Res. : 17 -27.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A., Miralles, D.J. 2003b. Floret development, spike growth as affected by photoperiod during stem elongation in wheat. Field Crops Res. 81:29–38.

    Miralles D.J. , 'Floret development, spike growth as affected by photoperiod during stem elongation in wheat ' (2003 ) 81 Field Crops Res. : 29 -38.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gonzalez, F.G., Slafer, G.A., Miralles, D.J. 2005. Photoperiod during stem elongation in wheat: is its impact on fertile floret and grain number determination similar to that of radiation? Functional Plant Biology 32:181–188.

    Miralles D.J. , 'Photoperiod during stem elongation in wheat: is its impact on fertile floret and grain number determination similar to that of radiation ' (2005 ) 32 Functional Plant Biology : 181 -188.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hay, R.K.M., Kirby, E.J.M. 1991. Convergence and synchrony — Areview of the coordination of development in wheat. Aus. J. Agri. Res. 42:661–700.

    Kirby E.J.M. , 'Convergence and synchrony — Areview of the coordination of development in wheat ' (1991 ) 42 Aus. J. Agri. Res. : 661 -700.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kirby, E.J.M. 1988. Analysis of leaf, stem and ear growth in wheat from terminal spikelet stage to anthesis. Field Crops Res. 18:127–140.

    Kirby E.J.M. , 'Analysis of leaf, stem and ear growth in wheat from terminal spikelet stage to anthesis ' (1988 ) 18 Field Crops Res. : 127 -140.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kiss, T., Balla, K., Veisz, O., Karsai, I. 2011. Elaboration of a non-destructive methodology for establishing plant developmental patterns in cereals. Acta Agronomica Hungarica 59:293–301.

    Karsai I. , 'Elaboration of a non-destructive methodology for establishing plant developmental patterns in cereals ' (2011 ) 59 Acta Agronomica Hungarica : 293 -301.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Miralles, D.J., Katz, S.D., Colloca, A., Slafer, G.A. 1998. Floret development in near isogenic lines differing in plant height. Field Crops Res. 59:21–30.

    Slafer G.A. , 'Floret development in near isogenic lines differing in plant height ' (1998 ) 59 Field Crops Res. : 21 -30.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Miralles, D.J., Richards, R.A., Slafer, G.A. 2000. Duration of stem elongation period influences the number of fertile florets in wheat, barley. Austr. J. Plant Physiol. 27:931–940.

    Slafer G.A. , 'Duration of stem elongation period influences the number of fertile florets in wheat, barley ' (2000 ) 27 Austr. J. Plant Physiol. : 931 -940.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Slafer, G.A., Calderini, D.F., Miralles, D.J. 1996. Yield components and compensation in wheat: Opportunities for further increasing yield potential. In: Reynolds, M.P., Rajaram, S., McNab, A. (eds), Increasing Yield Potential in Wheat: Breaking the Barriers. CIMMYT, Mexico DF, pp. 101–133.

    Miralles D.J. , '', in Increasing Yield Potential in Wheat: Breaking the Barriers , (1996 ) -.

  • Slafer, G.A., Rawson, H.M. 1994. Sensitivity of wheat phasic development to major environmental factors: A re-examination of some assumptions made by physiologists and modellers. Aust. J. Plant Phys. 21:393–426.

    Rawson H.M. , 'Sensitivity of wheat phasic development to major environmental factors: A re-examination of some assumptions made by physiologists and modellers ' (1994 ) 21 Aust. J. Plant Phys. : 393 -426.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Snape, J.W., Butterworth, K., Whitechurch, E., Worland, A.J. 2001. Waiting for fine times: Genetics of flowering time in wheat. Euphytica 119:185–190.

    Worland A.J. , 'Waiting for fine times: Genetics of flowering time in wheat ' (2001 ) 119 Euphytica : 185 -190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tottman, D.R., Makepeace, R.J. 1979. An explanation of the decimal code for the growth stages of cereals, with illustrations. Ann. Appl. Biol. 93:221–234.

    Makepeace R.J. , 'An explanation of the decimal code for the growth stages of cereals, with illustrations ' (1979 ) 93 Ann. Appl. Biol. : 221 -234.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Whitechurch, E.M., Slafer, G.A. 2001. Responses to photoperiod before and after jointing in wheat substitution lines. Euphytica 118:47–51.

    Slafer G.A. , 'Responses to photoperiod before and after jointing in wheat substitution lines ' (2001 ) 118 Euphytica : 47 -51.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Whitechurch, E.M., Slafer, G.A., Miralles, D.J. 2007. Variability in the duration of stem elongation in wheat genotypes and sensitivity to photoperiod and vernalization. J. Agronomy & Crop Science 193:131–137.

    Miralles D.J. , 'Variability in the duration of stem elongation in wheat genotypes and sensitivity to photoperiod and vernalization ' (2007 ) 193 J. Agronomy & Crop Science : 131 -137.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Worland, A.J. 1996. The influence of flowering time genes on environmental adaptability in European wheats. Euphytica 89:49–57.

    Worland A.J. , 'The influence of flowering time genes on environmental adaptability in European wheats ' (1996 ) 89 Euphytica : 49 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Worland, A.J., Börner, A., Korzun, V., Li, W.M., Petrovíc, S., Sayers, E.J. 1998. The influence of photoperiod genes on the adaptability of European winter wheats. Euphytica 100:385–394.

    Sayers E.J. , 'The influence of photoperiod genes on the adaptability of European winter wheats ' (1998 ) 100 Euphytica : 385 -394.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yan, L., Helguera, M., Kato, K., Fukuyama, S., Sherman, J., Dubcovsky, J. 1998. Allelic variation at the VRN-1 promoter region in polyploid wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 109:1677–1686.

    Dubcovsky J. , 'Allelic variation at the VRN-1 promoter region in polyploid wheat ' (1998 ) 109 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 1677 -1686.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yang, F.P., Zhang, X.K., Xia, X.C., Laurie, D.A., Yang, W.X., He, Z.H. 2009. Distribution of the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a allele in Chinese wheat cultivars. Euphytica 165:445–452.

    He Z.H. , 'Distribution of the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a allele in Chinese wheat cultivars ' (2009 ) 165 Euphytica : 445 -452.

    • Search Google Scholar