View More View Less
  • 1 CCS Haryana Agricultural University Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Hisar 125004 India
  • 2 CCS Haryana Agricultural University Bioinformatics Section, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities Hisar 125004 India
Restricted access

Molecular markers provide novel tools for linkage mapping of QTLs of target traits and can greatly enhance the efficacy of breeding programs to improve mineral (iron and zinc) density in rice. A F2 population derived from the cross between high-yielding (PAU201) and iron-rich (Palman 579) indica rice varieties displayed large variation for various physio-morphological traits including grain yield per plant and iron and zinc contents. Transgressive segregation for grain iron and/or zinc contents was noticed in some F2 individuals with one of the F2 plants having exceptionally higher iron (475.4 μg/g) as well as zinc (157.4 μg/g) contents. Grain iron content showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.523) with grain zinc content indicating the feasibility of improving iron and zinc levels simultaneously in rice grain. Two parental rice varieties displayed polymorphism at 76 of the 100 SSR loci, which were used to map the QTLs associated with mineral content in grains. Composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis by Win QTL cartographer 2.5 revealed a total of eleven QTLs for mineral content (eight for Fe and three for Zn) in rice grains on chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10 and 12.

  • Aluko, G., Martinez, C., Tohme, J., Castano, C., Bergman, C., Oard, J.H. 2004. QTL mapping of grain quality traits from the interspecific cross Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima. Theor. Appl. Genet. 109:630–639.

    Oard J.H. , 'QTL mapping of grain quality traits from the interspecific cross Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima ' (2004 ) 109 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 630 -639.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anuradha, K., Agarwal, S., Batchu, A.K., Babu, A.P., Swamy, B.P.M., Longvah, T., Sarla, N. 2012. Evaluating rice germplasm for iron and zinc concentration in brown rice and seed dimensions. J. Phyto. 4:19–25.

    Sarla N. , 'Evaluating rice germplasm for iron and zinc concentration in brown rice and seed dimensions ' (2012 ) 4 J. Phyto. : 19 -25.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Brar, B., Jain, S., Singh, R., Jain, R.K. 2011. Genetic diversity for iron and zinc contents in a collection of 220 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Indian J. Genet. 71:67–73.

    Jain R.K. , 'Genetic diversity for iron and zinc contents in a collection of 220 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes ' (2011 ) 71 Indian J. Genet. : 67 -73.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fisher, R.A., Yates, F. 1963. Statistical tables for biological, agricultural and medicinal research, 6th edn. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, UK, p. 63.

    Yates F. , '', in Statistical tables for biological, agricultural and medicinal research , (1963 ) -.

  • Garcia-Oliveira, A.L., Tan, L., Fu, Y., Sun, C. 2009. Genetic identification of quantitative trait loci for contents of mineral nutrients in rice grain. J. Plant Biol. 51:84–92.

    Sun C. , 'Genetic identification of quantitative trait loci for contents of mineral nutrients in rice grain ' (2009 ) 51 J. Plant Biol. : 84 -92.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gowda, S.J.M., Randhawa, G.J., Bisht, I.S., Firke, P.K., Singh, A.K., Abraham, Z., Dhillon, B.S. 2012. Morpho-agronomic and simple sequence repeat-based diversity in colored rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm from peninsular India. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 59:179–189.

    Dhillon B.S. , 'Morpho-agronomic and simple sequence repeat-based diversity in colored rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm from peninsular India ' (2012 ) 59 Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. : 179 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Graham, R.D., Senadhira, D., Beebe, S., Iglesias, C., Monasterio, I. 1999. Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: Conventional approaches. Field Crops Res. 60:57–80.

    Monasterio I. , 'Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: Conventional approaches ' (1999 ) 60 Field Crops Res. : 57 -80.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gregorio, G.B., Senadhira, D., Htut, T., Graham, R.D. 2000. Breeding for trace mineral density in rice. Food Nutr. Bull. 21:382–386.

    Graham R.D. , 'Breeding for trace mineral density in rice ' (2000 ) 21 Food Nutr. Bull. : 382 -386.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hagiwara, W.E., Onishi, K., Takamure, I., Sano, Y. 2006. Transgressive segregation due to linked QTLs for grain characteristics of rice. Euphytica 150:27–35.

    Sano Y. , 'Transgressive segregation due to linked QTLs for grain characteristics of rice ' (2006 ) 150 Euphytica : 27 -35.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Harvestplus 2012. Nutrients. http://www.harvestplus.org/content/zinc

    '', in Nutrients , (2012 ) -.

  • Jain, N., Jain, S., Saini, N., Jain, R.K. 2006. SSR analysis of chromosome 8 regions associated with aroma and cooked kernel elongation in Basmati rice. Euphytica 152:259–273.

    Jain R.K. , 'SSR analysis of chromosome 8 regions associated with aroma and cooked kernel elongation in Basmati rice ' (2006 ) 152 Euphytica : 259 -273.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lindsay, W.L., Norwell, W.R. 1978. Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42:421–428.

    Norwell W.R. , 'Development of DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper ' (1978 ) 42 Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. : 421 -428.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Monasterio, I., Graham, R.D. 2000. Breeding for trace minerals in wheat. Food Nutr. Bull. 21:392–396.

    Graham R.D. , 'Breeding for trace minerals in wheat ' (2000 ) 21 Food Nutr. Bull. : 392 -396.

  • Norton, G.J., Deacon, C.M., Xiong, L., Huang, S., Meharg, A.A., Price, A.H. 2010. Genetic mapping of the rice ionome in leaves and grain: Identification of QTLs for 17 elements including arsenic, cadmium, iron and selenium. Plant Soil 329:139–153.

    Price A.H. , 'Genetic mapping of the rice ionome in leaves and grain: Identification of QTLs for 17 elements including arsenic, cadmium, iron and selenium ' (2010 ) 329 Plant Soil : 139 -153.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pfeiffer, W.H., McClafferty, B. 2007. Harvest Plus: breeding crops for better nutrition. Crop Sci. 47:S88–S105.

    McClafferty B. , 'Harvest Plus: breeding crops for better nutrition ' (2007 ) 47 Crop Sci. : S88 -S105.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rohlf, F.J. 1993. NTSYS-PC: Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 1.8. Exeter Software, New York, USA.

    Rohlf F.J. , '', in NTSYS-PC: Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 1.8 , (1993 ) -.

  • Saghai-Maroof, M.A., Soliman, K.M., Jorgensen, R.A., Allard, R.W. 1984. Ribosomal spacer length polymorphism in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location and population dynamics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 81:8014–8019.

    Allard R.W. , 'Ribosomal spacer length polymorphism in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location and population dynamics ' (1984 ) 81 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA : 8014 -8019.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sellappan, K., Datta, K., Parkhi, V., Datta, S.K. 2009. Rice caryopsis structure in relation to distribution of micronutrients (iron, zinc, β-carotene) of rice cultivars including transgenic indica rice. Plant Sci. 177:557–562.

    Datta S.K. , 'Rice caryopsis structure in relation to distribution of micronutrients (iron, zinc, β-carotene) of rice cultivars including transgenic indica rice ' (2009 ) 177 Plant Sci. : 557 -562.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Stangoulis, J.C.R., Huynh, B.L., Welch, R.M., Choi, E.Y., Graham, R.D. 2007. Quantitative trait loci for phytate in rice grain and their relationship with grain micronutrient content. Euphytica 154:289–294.

    Graham R.D. , 'Quantitative trait loci for phytate in rice grain and their relationship with grain micronutrient content ' (2007 ) 154 Euphytica : 289 -294.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, L., Wang, A., Huang, X., Zhao, Q., Dong, G., Qian, Q., Sang, T., Han, B. 2011. Mapping 49 quantitative trait loci at high resolution through sequencing-based genotyping of rice recombinant inbred lines. Theor. Appl. Genet. 122:327–340.

    Han B. , 'Mapping 49 quantitative trait loci at high resolution through sequencing-based genotyping of rice recombinant inbred lines ' (2011 ) 122 Theor. Appl. Genet. : 327 -340.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wang, S., Basten, C.J., Zeng, Z.B. 2012. Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC ( http://statgen.ncsu.edu/qtlcart/WQTLCart.htm )

    Zeng Z.B. , '', in Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5 , (2012 ) -.

  • Welch, R.M., Graham, R.D. 2004. Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. J. Exp. Bot. 55:353–364.

    Graham R.D. , 'Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective ' (2004 ) 55 J. Exp. Bot. : 353 -364.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • WHO 2012. Nutrition. http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/ida/en/index.html

    '', in Nutrition , (2012 ) -.