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  • 1 National Research Institute Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute (IHAR) Radzików Poland
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The gene pool of Polish oat cultivars is quite narrow. Obsolete cultivars bred at the beginning of the 20th century could be one of the “new” sources of genetic diversity. Re-using them in breeding programs might be much easier than interspecific hybridization with wild relatives. The aim of this study was to assess genetic variation within cultivars bred in Poland before 1939. Molecular analysis was carried out using ISSR markers. The obtained results have shown the old cultivars are much more heterogenic than the advanced ones. Distinctiveness of the gene pool of these accessions in relation to the modern Polish cultivar and landrace was also observed. UPGMA analysis has shown, despite the considerable time lapse, the tested cultivars retain their genetic integrity. Based on archive pedigree data it was found that most of the analysed accessions had diverse origin. Low value of total genetic variation of the old cultivars collection may indicate the gene pool of the primeval oat forms which were brought and grown in Poland was quite narrow. Both breeding history and the results presented in this paper suggest the restoration of old cultivars to Polish breeding should be one of the main tasks of gene bank in the future. According to the monitoring of accession sharing conducted by the national gene bank, breeders’ interest in old cultivars and landraces was and still is neglected.

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Cereal Research Communications
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