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  • 1 Institut Supérieur de Biologie Appliquée de Médenine, route El Jorf — Km 22.5, Médenine, 4119, Université de Gabès, Tunisia
  • | 2 Unité de recherche Nutrition et Métabolisme Azotés et Protéines de Stress UR99/20, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, 1060 Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunisia
  • | 3 Laboratory of Extremophile Plants, Centre of Biotechnology of Borj Cedria, P.O. Box 901, 2050 Hammam-Lif, Tunisia
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Nitrogen (N) acts as nutrient and signaling molecule in plants all over their development stages. The involvement of various N forms in the regulation of seed germination response to salt stress was assessed in the present work. Nitrogen sources (NO, NO2, NO3, NH4+, glutamine and glutamate) were added at 1mMto the germination medium of barley (Hordeum vulgare, cv Ardhaoui) in combination or not with NaCl stress (14 g.L−1). The application of nitrogen monoxide (NO) alleviated by about 20% the NaCl-induced germination capacity decrease. However, the addition of ammonium ions (NH4+) and glutamic acid (Glu) accentuated the inhibitory effects of NaCl, decreasing germination capacity by about 50% compared to the control. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is an indicator of membrane lipid peroxidation by stresses, were increased by salinity in seeds treated with nitrite (NO2), NO3, Glu and Gln. In N-free medium, NaCl stress induced a severe nitrate reductase activity (NR, EC 1.6.1.6) inhibition. Such an effect was alleviated by the application of N treatments. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2) aminating activity (NADH-GDH) of seedlings was inhibited by NaCl stress in the presence of NO, Glu and Gln. Conversely, there was stimulation by salt stress of NADH-GDH activity in seedlings treated with NaCl and NH4+. Deaminating GDH activity (NAD-GDH) was found to be enhanced by salt stress in NO2 and NO3 treatments. The differential effects of applied N forms on germination and early seedling development processes in this grass probably underlines different regulatory actions within N mobilization and assimilation.

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Cereal Research Communications
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