View More View Less
  • 1 Széchenyi István University, Mosonmagyaróvár H-9200 Vár 2, Hungary
Restricted access

This paper reviews the works related to the effect of soil compaction on cereal yield and focuses on research of field experiments. The reasons for compaction formation are usually a combination of several types of interactions. Therefore one of the most researched topics all over the world is the changes in the soil’s physical and chemical properties to achieve sustainable cereal production conditions. Whether we are talking about soil bulk density, physical soil properties, water conductivity or electrical conductivity, or based on the results of measurements of on-line or point of soil sampling resistance testing, the fact is more and more information is at our disposal to find answers to the challenges.

Thanks to precision plant production technologies (PA) these challenges can be overcome in a much more efficient way than earlier as instruments are available (geospatial technologies such as GIS, remote sensing, GPS with integrated sensors and steering systems; plant physiological models, such Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), which includes models for cereals etc.). The tests were carried out first of all on alteration clay and sand content in loam, sandy loam and silt loam soils. In the study we examined especially the change in natural soil compaction conditions and its effect on cereal yields.

Both the literature and our own investigations have shown that the soil moisture content changes have the opposite effect in natural compaction in clay and sand content related to cereal yield. These skills would contribute to the spreading of environmental, sustainable fertilizing devoid of nitrate leaching planning and cereal yield prediction within the framework of the PA to eliminate seasonal effects.

  • Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Y., Rahimi-Ajdadi, F. 2016. Design, construction and field evaluation of a multiple blade soil mechanical resistance sensor. Soil Till. Res. 157:93100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adamchuk, V.I., Hummel, J.W., Morgan, M.T., Upadhyaya, S.K. 2004. On-the-go soil sensors for precision agriculture. Comput. Electron. Agr. 44:7191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Afzalinia, S., Zabihi, J. 2014. Soil compaction variation during corn growing season under conservation tillage. Soil Till. Res. 137:16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Al-Gaadi, K.A. 2012. Employing electromagnetic induction technique for the assessment of soil compaction. Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 7:425434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alimardani, R., Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Y., Khalilian, A. 2007. Energy savings with variable-depth tillage “A precision farming practice”. American-Eurasian J. Agric. and Environ. Sci. 2:442447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arvidsson, J., Håkansson, I. 1996. Do effects of soil compaction persist after ploughing? Results from 21 longterm field experiments in Sweden. Soil Till. Res. 39:157197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, A.C., Johnson, C.E., Schafer, R.L. 1986. A model for agricultural soil compaction. J. Agr. Sci. 18:225.

  • Balla, I., Milics, G., Deákvári, J., Fenyvesi, L., Smuk, N., Neményi, M., Jolánkai, M. 2013. Connection between soil moisture content and electrical conductivity in a precision farming field. Acta Agr. Óvár. 55:2132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birkás, M., Jolánkai, M., Gyuricza, Cs., Percze, A. 2004. Tillage effects on compaction, earthworms and other soil quality indicators in Hungary. Soil Till. Res. 78:185196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birkás, M., Antos, G., Neményi, M., Szemok, A. 2008. Environmentally-sound Adaptable Tillage. Akadémiai Kiadó. Budapest, Hungary.

  • Birkás, M., Dexter, T., Szemok, A. 2009a. Tillage-induced soil compaction as a climate threat increasing stressor. Cereal Res. Commun. 37:379382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birkás, M., Kisic, I., Bottlik, L., Jolánkai, M., Mesic, M., Kalmár, T. 2009b. Subsoil compaction as a climaze damage indicator. Agriculture Conspectus Scientificus. 74:9197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bogunovic, I., Mesic, M., Birkás, M. 2015. Spatial variability of penetration resistance on pseudogley. Agric. Consepc. Sci. 80:916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brathwaite, O., Brathwaite, R.A.I. 2002. Multiple ear effects on yield of maize varieties under tropical wet and dry season conditions. Maydica. 47:115120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caroll, Z.L., Oliver, M. 2005. Exploring the spatial relations between soil physical properties and apparent electrical conductivity. Geoderma 128:354374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, Y., Cavers, C., Tessier, S., Moreno, F., Lobb, D. 2005. Short-term tillage effects on soil cone index and plant development in a poorly drained, heavy clay soil. Soil Till. Res. 82:161171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G., Weil, R.R. 2011. Root growth and yield of maize as affected by soil compaction and cover crops. Soil Till. Res. 117:1727.

  • Chung, S.O., Sudduth, K.A. 2004. Characterization of cone index and tillage draft data to define design parameters for an on-the-go soil strength profile sensor. Agr. Biosyst. Eng. 5:1020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cid, P., Carmana, I., Murillo, J.M., Gómez-Macpherson, H. 2014. No-tillage permanent bed planting and controlled traffic in a maize-cotton irrigated system under Mediterranean conditions: Effects on soil compaction, crop performance and carbonsequestration. Eur. J. Agron. 61:2434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corwin, D.L., Lesch, S.M. 2005. Characterizing soil spatial variability with apparent soil electrical conductivity. I. Survey protocols. Comput. Electron. Agr. 46:103133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Czyž, E.A., Tomaszewska, J., Dexter, A.R. 2001. Response of spring barley to changes of compaction and aeration of sandy soil under model conditions. Int. Agrophys. 15:912.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filipovic, D., Husnjak, S., Kosutic, S., Gospodaric, Z. 2006. Effects of tillage systems on compaction and crop yields of Albic Luvisol in Croatia. J. Terramechanics 43:177189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franke, A.C., Laberge, G., Oyewole, B.D. 2008. A comparison between legume technologies and fallow, and their effects on maize and soil traits, in two distinct environments of the West African savannah. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 82:117135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gameda, S., Raghavan, G.S.V., McKyes, E., Theriault, R. 1987. Subsoil compaction in a clay soil. I. Cumulative effects. Soil Till. Res. 10:113122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ge, Y., Thomasson, A., Sui, R. 2011. Remote sensing of soil properties in precision agriculture: A review. Front. Earth Sci. 5:229238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glinski, J., Lipiec, J. 1990. Soil physical conditions and plant roots. CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

  • Grzesiak, S., Grzesiak, M.T., Filek, W., Hura, T., Stabryla, J. 2002. The impact of different soil moisture and soil compaction on the growth of triticale root system. Acta Physiol. Plant. 24:331342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gupta, S.C., Larson, W.E. 1982. Predicting soil mechanical behaviour during tillage. In: Unger, P., van Doren, D.M. (eds), Predicting Tillage Effects on Soil Physical Properties and Processes. ASA. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 44:151178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Håkansson, I., Lipiec, J. 2000. A review of the usefulness of relative bulk density values in studies of soil structure and compaction. Soil Till. Res. 53:7185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halcro, G., Corstanje, R., Mouazen, A.M. 2013. Site-specific land management of cereal crops based on management zone delineation by proximal soil sensing. In: Stafford, J.V. (ed.), Precision Agriculture ’13. Academic Publishers. Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp. 475482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartmann, P., Zink, A., Fleige, H., Horn, R. 2012. Effect of compaction, tillage and climate change on soil water balance of Arable Luvisols in Northwest Germany. Soil Till. Res. 124:211218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, Y., Hou, L., Wang, H., Hu, K., McConkey, B. 2014. A modelling approach to evaluate the long-term effect of soil texture on spring wheat productivity under a rain-fed condition. Scientific Reports. 4:5736.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hemmat, A., Adamchuk, V.I. 2008. Sensor systems for measuring soil compaction: Review and analysis. Comp. Electr. Agr. 63:83103.

  • Hemmat, A., Tahmasebi, M., Vafaeian, M., Mosaddeghi, M.R. 2009. Relationship between pre-compaction stress and shear strength under confined and semi-confined loadings for a sandy loam soil. Biosyst. Eng. 102:219226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoogenboom, G., Jones, J.W., Porter, C.H., Wilkens, P.W., Boote, K.J., Hunt, L.A., Tsuji, G.Y. 2010. Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Tranfer (DSSAT), Version 4.5 (CD-ROM), vol. 1. Overview. University of Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ijoyah, M.O., Iorlamen, T., Idoko, J.A. 2012. Yield response of intercropped maize (Zea mays L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) to seasonal conditions at Makurdi, Nigeria. J. Nat. Sci. Res. 2:7985.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ishaq, M., Hassan, A., Saeed, M., Ibrahim, M., Lal, R. 2001. Subsoil compaction effects on crops in Punjab, Pakistan. I. Soil physical properties and crop yield. Soil Till. Res. 59:5765.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, A.J., Siemens, J.C., Voorhess, W.B., Grisso, R.D., Schumacher, T.E. 1995. Soil Compaction (Chap 14). In: Moldenhauer, W.C., Mielke, L.N. (eds), Crop Residue Management to Reduce Erosion and Improve Soil Quality –North Central. USDA-ARS Conservation Research Report 42. Washington, USA. pp. 6164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karmakar, S., Kushwaha, R.L. 2007. Development and laboratory evaluation of a rheometer for soil viscoplastic parameters. J. Terramechanics 4:197204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kerry, R., Oliver, M.A. 2003. Variograms of ancillary data to aid sampling for soil surveys. Precis. Agric. 4:261278.

  • Kirkegaard, J.A., So, H.B., Troedson, R.J., Wallis, E.S. 1992. The effect of compaction on the growth of pigeonpea on clay soils. I. Mechanisms of crop response and seasonal effects on a vertisol in a sub-humid environment. Soil Till. Res. 24:107127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kristoffersen, A.Ø., Riley, H. 2005. Effects of soil compaction and moisture regime on the root and shoot growth and phosphorus uptake of barley plants growing on soils with varying phosphorus status. Nut. Cycl. Agroecosys. 72:135142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumar, A., Chen, Y., Sadek, A., Rahman, S. 2012. Soil cone index in relation to soil texture, moisture content and bulk density for no-tillage and conventional tillage. Agric. Eng. Int.: CIGR Journal. 14:2637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lapen, D.R., Hayhoe, H.N., Topp, G.C., McLaughlin, N.B., Gregorich, E.G., Curnoe, W.E. 2002. Measurements of mouldboard plow draft: II. Draft-soil-crop and yield-draft association. Precis. Agric. 3:237257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larson, W.E., Gupta, S.C., Unseche, R.A. 1980. Compression of agricultural soils from eight soil orders. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44:450.

  • Lindstrom, M.J., Voorhees, W.B. 1994. Responses of temperature crops in North America to soil compaction. In: Soane, B.D., Van Ouwerkerk, C., Soil Compaction in Crop Production. Elsevier. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 265286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lipiec, J., Nosalewicz, A., Smarz, M. 2002. Root growth and water uptake of wheat as affected by soil compaction. In: Proc. 3rd INCO Workshop, 14–18 June, 2001. Brasov, Romania. pp. 171177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lipiec, J., Arvidsson, J., Murer, E. 2003a. Review of modelling crop growth, movement of water and chemicals in relation to topsoil and subsoil compaction. Soil Till. Res. 73:1529.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lipiec, J., Medvedev, V.V., Birkás, M., Dumitru, E., Lyndina, T.E., Rousseva, S., Fulajtár, E. 2003b. Effect of soil compaction on root growth and crop yield in Central and Eastern Europe. Int. Agrophys. 17:6169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lipiec, J., Hatano, R. 2003. Quantification of compaction effects on soil physical properties and crop growth. Geoderma 116:107136.

  • Lipiec, J., Horn, R., Pietrusiewicz, J., Siczek, A. 2012. Effects of soil compaction on root elongation and anatomy of different cereal plant species. Soil Till. Res. 121:7481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., Feike, T., Shao, L., Sun, H., Chen, S., Zhang, X. 2016. Effects of different irrigation regimes on soil compaction in a winter wheat–summer maize cropping system in the North China Plain. Catena. 137:7076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKyes, E. 1985. Soil Cutting and Tillage. Elsevier. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 217 p.

  • Motavalli, P.P., Anderson, S.H., Pengthamkeerati, P., Gantzer, C.J. 2003. Use of soil cone penetrometers to detect the effects of compaction and organic amendments in claypan soils. Soil Till. Res. 74:103114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouazen, A.M., Neményi, M. 1999a. Finite element analysis of subsoiler cutting in non-homogeneous sandy loam soil. Soil Till. Res. 51:115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouazen, A.M., Neményi, M. 1999b. Tillage tool design by the finite element methods: Part 1. Finite element modelling of soil plastic behaviour. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 72:3751.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouazen, A.M., Neményi, M., Schwanghart, H., Rempfer, M. 1999. Tillage tool design by the finite element method: Part 2. Experimental validation of the finite element results with soil bin test. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 72:5358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouazen, A.M., Dumont, K. Maertens, K., Ramon, H. 2003a. Two-dimensional prediction of spatial variation in topsoil compaction of a sandy loam field-based on measured horizontal force of compaction sensor, cutting depth and moisture content. Soil Till. Res. 74:91102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouazen, A.M., Ramon, H., Baerdemaeker, J.D. 2003b. Modelling compaction from on-line measurement of soil properties and sensor draught. Precis. Agric. 4:203212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouazen, A.M., Ramon, H. 2009. Expanding implementation of an on-line measurement system of topsoil compaction in loamy sand, loam, silt loam and silt soils. Soil Till. Res. 103:98104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagy, V., Milics, G., Smuk, N., Kovács, A.J., Balla, I., Jolánkai, M., Deákvári, J., Szalay, K.D., Fenyvesi, L., Štekauerová, V., Wilhelm, Z., Rajkai, K., Németh, T., Neményi, M. 2013. Continuous field soil moisture content mapping by means of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) measurement. J. Hydrol. Hydromec. 61:305312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nawaz, M.F., Bourrié, G., Trolard, F. 2013. Soil compaction impact and modelling. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 33:291309.

  • Neményi, M., Mesterházi, P.Á., Milics, G. 2006. An application of tillage force mapping as a cropping management tool. Biosyst. Eng. 94:351357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neményi, M., Milics, G., Mesterházi, P.Á. 2008. The role of the frequency of soil parameter database collection with special regard to on-line soil compaction measurement. In: Formato, A. (ed.), Advances in Soil and Tillage Research. Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India. pp. 125139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neményi, M., Milics, G. 2010. Optimalization of biomass production by thermodynamic approach. In: Genet, R. (ed.), Int. Conf. on Agricultural Engineering. Clermont-Ferrand, France. pp. 17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nyéki, A., Milics, G., Kovács, A.J., Neményi, M. 2013. Improving yield advisory models for precision agriculture with special regards to soil compaction in maize production. In: Stafford, J.V. (ed.), Precision Agriculture ’13. Academic Publishers. Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp. 443451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orrben, C.L., Thorp, W.E. 1931. Soil survey of Monroe Country, Iowa. USDA, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils. Waverly, IA, USA.

  • Parent, A.C., Bélanger, M.C., Parent, L.E., Santerre, R., Viau, A.A., Anctil, F., Bolinder, M.A., Tremblay, C. 2008. Soil properties and landscape factors affecting maize yield under wet spring conditions in eastern Canada. Biosys. Eng. 99:134144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payne, J.M. 2008. Identification of Subsoil Compaction Using Electrical Conductivity and Spectral Data across Varying Soil Moisture Regimes in Utah. MSc Thesis. Utah State University. Logan, Utah, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poincelot, R.P. 1986. Toward a More Sustainable Agriculture. AVI Publ. Westport, CT, USA.

  • Raghavan, G.S.V., McKyes, E. 1978. Statistical models for predicting compaction generated by off-road vehicular traffic in different soil types. J. Terramechanics. 15:114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raghavan, G.S.V., McKyes, E., Taylor, F., Richard, P., Watson, A. 1979. The relationship between traffic and corn yield reductions in successive years. Transactions of the ASAE. University of California. Davis, CA, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raghavan, G.S.V., Alvo, P., McKyes, E. 1990. Soil compaction in agriculture: a view toward managing the problem. In: Lal, R., Stewart, B.A. (eds.), Soil Degradation. Advances in Soil Science. Springer Verlag. Berlin, Germany. 11:136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raper, R.L., Reeves, D.W., Schwab, E.B., Burmester, C.H. 2000. Reducing soil compaction of Tennessee Valley soils in conservation tillage systems. J. Cotton Sci. 4:8490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rátonyi, T., Huzsvai, L., Nagy, J., Megyes, A. 2005. Evaluation of soil tillage systems in maize production. Acta Agron. Hungarica 53:5357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rusinamhodzi, L., Corbeels, M., Van Wijk, M.T., Rufino, M.C., Nyamangara, J., Giller, K.E. 2011. A metaanalysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions. Agronomy Sust. Developm. 31:657673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salem, H.M., Valero, C., Munoz, M.Á., Rodríguez, M.G., Silva, L.L. 2015. Short-term effects of four tillage practices on soil physical properties, soil water potential, and maize yield. Geoderma. 237:6070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, C., Johnston, M., Lorentz, S. 1997. Assessing the compaction susceptibility of South African forestry soils. I. The effect of soil type, water content and applied pressure on uni-axial compaction. Soil Till. Res. 41:5373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D.L.O. 1985. Compaction by wheels: a numerical model for agricultural soils. J. Soil Sci. 36:36621.

  • Szollosi, I. 2003. A 3T SYSTEM készülékkel mért penetrációs ellenállás és nedvességtartalom összefüggése vályog fizikai féleségu talajon (Correlations between the penetration resistance registered with a 3T SYSTEM instrument and the moisture content of a soil with loam texture.) Agrokémiai és Talajtan 52:263274. (in Hungarian with English abstract)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taboada, M.A., Alvarez, C.R. 2008. Root abundance of maize in conventionally tilled and zero-tilled soils in Argentina. Brazilian J. Soil Sci. 32:769779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taser, O.F., Kara, O. 2005. Silage maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings emergence as influenced by soil compaction treatments and contact pressure. Plant Soil Environ. 51:289295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tilman, D. 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature 396:211212.

  • Tracy, B.F., Zhang, Y. 2008. Soil compaction, corn yield response and soil nutrient pool dynamics within an integrated crop-livestock system in Illinois. Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. pp. 129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • USDA 1987. Soil Mechanics Level I. Module 3 –USDA Textural Soil Classification. Study Guide. USDA, Soil Conservation Service. Stillwater, OK, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Várallyay, Gy. 2010. Role of soil multifunctionality in sustainable development. Soil Water Res. 5:102107.

  • Vetsch, J.A., Randall, G.W. 2004. Corn production as affected by nitrogen application timing and tillage. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 96:502509.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilkins, D.E., Siemens, M.C., Albrecht, S.L. 2002. Changes in soil physical characteristics during transition from intensive tillage to direct seeding. Transaction of the ASAE. 45:877880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolfe, D.W., Topoleski, D.T., Gundersheim, N.A., Ingall, B.A. 1995. Growth and yield sensitivity of four vegetable crops to soil compaction. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 120:956963.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolkowski, R., Lowery, B. 2008. Soil Compaction: Causes, Concern, and Cures. University of Wisconsin- Extension, WI, USA. pp. 18.