View More View Less
  • 1 University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
  • 2 Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Tsirang, Bhutan
Restricted access

Spring radiation frost is a serious problem in Australia particularly at the reproductive stage, causing an annual revenue loss of more than AU$ 360 million. The focus of frost research therefore has been to identify reproductively frost resistant cereals at the both varietal and species levels that can contribute to alleviating frost damage. Seven triticale and three wheat varieties were assessed to determine relative frost tolerance under natural frost conditions. Plants were grown in pots and raised in the glasshouse. At flowering (±5 days), plants were exposed to a single overnight frost or frost maintained for a short time with varying intensities from 0.2 to –6.6 °C at crop ear height. The frost impact was assessed at maturity based on ear fertility by counting the number of developed grains. There were variable levels of tolerance between triticale varieties with Tahara being more susceptible than other varieties. At species level, triticale was more susceptible than wheat. Temperatures below –3.9 °C were economically damaging. A holistic approach of breeding and agronomic management may be needed to mitigate the frost problem in winter cereals.

  • Allen, H.M., Pumpa, J.K., Batten, G.D. 2001. Effect of frost on the quality of samples of Janz wheat. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 41:641647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boer, R., Campbell, L.C., Fletcher, D.J. 1993. Characteristics of frost in a major wheat growing region of Australia. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:17311743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.H., Gusta, L.V., Fowler, D.B. 1983. Freezing injury and root development in winter cereals. Plant Physiol. 73:773777.

  • Cromey, M.G., Wright, D.S.C., Boddington, H.J. 1998. Effects of frost during grain filling on wheat yield and grain structure. N.Z.J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 26:279290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frederiks, T.M., Christopher, J.T., Borrell, A.K. 2008. Low temperature adaption of wheat post head-emergence in northern Australia. In: Proc. of the 11th Int. Wheat Genet. Symp. Brisbane, Australia. pp. 894896.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frederiks, T.M., Christopher, J.T., Fletcher, S.E.H., Borrell, A.K. 2011. Post head-emergence frost resistance of barley genotypes in the northern grain region of Australia. Crop Pasture Sci. 62:736745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frederiks, T.M., Christopher, J.T., Harvey, G.L., Sutherland, M.W., Borrell, A.K. 2012. Current and emerging screening methods to identify post head-emergence frost adaptation in wheat and barley. J. Exp. Bot. 63:54055416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frederiks, T.M., Christopher, J.T., Sutherland, M.W., Borrell, A.K. 2015. Post-head-emergence frost in wheat and barley: defining the problem, assessing the damage, and identifying resistance. J. Exp. Bot. 66:34873498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuller, M.P., Fuller, A.M., Kaniouras, S., Christopher, J.T., Frederiks, T.M. 2007. The freezing characteristics of wheat at ear emergence. Eur. J. Agron. 26:435441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grains Research and Development Corporation. 2013. Frost research targets yield losses. Retrieved from https://grdc.com.au/Media-Centre/Ground-Cover/Ground-Cover-Issue-103-Mar-April-2013/Frostresearch-targets-yield-losses. On 10 June, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hacker, J., Ladinig, U., Wagner, J., Neuner, G. 2010. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling. Plant Sci. 180:149156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limin, A.E., Fowler, D.B. 1991. Breeding for cold hardiness in winter wheat: problems, progress and alien gene expression. Field Crops Res. 27:201218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maes, B., Trethowan, R.M., Reynolds, M.P., Ginkel, M., Skovmand, B. 2001. The influence of glume pubescence on spikelet temperature of wheat under freezing conditions. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28:141148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marcellos, H., Single, W.V. 1984. Frost injury in wheat ears after ear emergence. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 11:715.

  • Paulsen, G.M., Heyne, E.G. 1984. Symptoms of injury to wheat from spring freezes in Kansas. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 87:1218.

  • Payton, M.E., Greenstone, M.H., Schenker, N. 2003. Overlapping confidence intervals or standard error intervals: What do they mean in terms of statistical significance? J. of Insect Sci. 3:334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Development Core Team 2010. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rebbeck, M., Lynch, C., Hayman, P.T., Sadras, V.O. 2007. Delving of sandy surfaced soils reduces frost damage in wheat crops. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 58:105112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reinheimer, J.L., Barr, A.R., Eglinton, J.K. 2004. QTL mapping of chromosomal regions conferreing reproductive frost tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 109:12671274.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roake, J., Trethowan, R., Jessop, R., Fittler, M. 2009. Improved triticale production through breeding and agronomy. A research report. http://www.porkcrc.com.au/1A-102_Final_Research_Report_.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Single, W., Marcellos, H. 1974. Studies on frost injury to wheat. IV. Freezing of ears after emergence from the leaf sheath. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 25:679686.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snyder, R.L., Paulo de Melo-Abreu, J. 2005. Frost protection: Fundamentals, Practice, and Economics. Vol. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, B., Chapman, S.C., Christopher, J.T., Frederiks, T.M., Chenu, K. 2015. Frost trends and their estimated impact on yield in the Australian wheatbelt. J. Exp. Bot. 66:36113623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation