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  • 1 Orvosi Vegytani, Molekuláris Biológiai és Pathobiokémiai Intézet, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
  • | 2 Vadaskert Gyermekpszichiátriai Kórház és Szakambulancia, Budapest
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Absztrakt

A gyermekkori pszichiátriai zavarok többségének hátterében a központi idegrendszer fejlődésének elmaradása fedezhető fel. A fejlődési zavarok egy körére jellemző az adott szituációban helytelen viselkedések és gondolatok gátlásának képtelensége. A figyelemhiányos/hiperaktivitási zavar (ADHD) impulzív tünetei, a Tourette-féle zavar (TS) akaratlan mozgásai, a kényszeres zavar (OCD) gondolatai és cselekvései feltehetően a thalamocorticalis gátló körök éretlensége miatt lépnek fel. Család- és ikervizsgálatok nagyfokú genetikai meghatározottságot mutattak ki, agyi képalkotó eljárások pedig a prefrontális kéreg és a bazális ganglionok érintettségét írták le mindhárom kórképben. Ezen agyterületeken végződnek többek közt az agytörzs magjaiból induló monoamin neurotranszmitter rendszerek, így a genetikai rizikófaktorok kutatása nagyrészt a dopamin, noradrenalin és a szerotonin rendszerek génjeire irányult. A dopamin transzporter és receptorok polimorfizmusai ADHD-val és TS-val mutatnak összefüggést, míg OCD-ben a szerotonerg kandidáns génekkel kaptak ígéretes eredményeket. E multifaktoriális zavarok kialakulásban természetesen a környezeti hatásoknak is fontos szerep jut, az elmúlt évek nagy esetszámú vizsgálatainak keretében sikeresen elindult a genetikai és környezeti faktorok interakcióinak feltárása is.

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Pszichológia
Language Hungarian
Year of
Foundation
1981
Publication
Programme
ceased
Founder Természettudományi Kutatóközpont -- Research Centre for Natural Sciences
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary Magyar Tudósok Körútja 2.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 0230-0508 (Print)
ISSN 2060-2782 (Online)

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