View More View Less
  • 1 Általános és Evolúciós Pszichológia Tanszék, PTE BTK, Pécs
Restricted access

Absztrakt

A fejlődési diszlexia az olvasás elsajátításának zavara megfelelő életkori, intelligencia- és nevelési feltételek megléte mellett. Elméletei közül ismert a fonológiai sérülés; a gyors hallási feldolgozás feltevés; újabban a látási elmélet. A látási deficit származhat a bizonytalan binokuláris fixációból vagy pl. a gyenge konvergens/divergens szemmozgásból. A cerebelláris/automatizálódási feltevés szerint a diszlexiásoknál enyhe cerebellum sérülés van, amely különböző kognitív zavarokkal jár együtt. A magnocelluláris elmélet fő állítása, hogy az olvasási probléma nem nyelvi, hanem a vizuális/hallási magnocelluláris rendszer általános sérülésének következménye: csökkent a mozgásérzékenység és a kontrasztérzékenység.

Vizsgálatunkban a magnocelluláris sérülés feltevést, a koherens mozgásészlelés és a kontúrintegráció közötti kapcsolatot vizsgáltuk 61 fő gyengén olvasó és diszlexiás és 46 fő tipikusan fejlődő gyereknél. A koherens mozgásészlelés küszöbeit vizsgálva és kontúrintegrációs faladatban is szignifikáns különbségek mutatkoztak a gyengén olvasó (diszlexiás) és a kontrollcsoport között. További eredményünk szerint a gyengén olvasó (diszlexiás) csoportnál a koherens mozgásészlelési küszöb (összesített átlag) és a kontúr integrációs feladat teljesítménye korrelál, a tipikus fejlődésű, normál olvasási csoport esetében a korreláció nem szignifikáns.

  • 1. Au, A., Lovegrove, W. (2001): The role of visual and auditory temporal processing in reading irregular and nonsense words. Perception, 30, 11271142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Beaton, A. A. (2004): Dyslexia, Reading and the Brain. Hove, Susex, Psychology Press.

  • 3. Bex, J. P., Simmers, A. J., Dakin, S. C. (2001): Snakes and ladders: The role of temporal modulation in visual contour. Vision Research, 41, 37753782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Boden, C., Giaschi, D. (2007): M-stream deficits and reading-related visual processes in developmental dyslexia. Psychological Bulletin, 133 (2), 346366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Boets, B., Wouters, J., Van Wieringen, A., Ghesquie'Re, P. (2006): Coherent motion detection in preschool children at family risk for dyslexia. Vision Research, 46, 527535.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Braddick, O. J., Atkinson, J., Wattam-Bell, J. (2003): Normal and anomalous developmnet of visual motion processing: motion coherence and dorsal-stream vulnerablitiy. Neuropsychologia, 41 (13), 17691784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Braddick, O. J., O'Brian, J. M. D., Wattam-Bell, J., Atkinson, J., Turner, R. (2000): Form and motion coherence activate independent, but not dorsal/ventral segregated network in the human brain. Current Biology, 10 (12), 731734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Butler, P. D., Silverstein, S. M., Dakin, S. C. (2008): Visual perception and its impairment in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 4047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Cestnick, E. P., Bradley, L., Fowler, M. S., Stein, J. F. (1991): What children see affects how they read. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 755762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Chandna, A., Pennefather, P. M., Kovács, I., Norcia, A. M. (2001): Contour integration deficits in anisometropic amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 42 (3), 875878.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Chen, Y., Mepeek, R., Intriligator, J., Holzman, P. S., Nakayama, K. (1999): Smooth pursuit to a movement flow and associated perceptual judgments. In: W. Becker, H. Deubel, T. Mergner (eds.), Current Oculomotor Research: Physiological and Psychological Aspects. New York, Plenum Publishing Corp., 125129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. CoMot@Geier – Koherens mozgásprogram, fájlverzió 1.6.1.91, PTE Pszichológiai Intézet – Geier János – 2008.

  • 13. Cornelissen, P., Hansen, P. C., Gilchrist, I., Cormack, F., Essex, E., Frankish, C. (1998a): Coherent motion detection and letter position encoding. Vision Research, 38, 21812191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Cornelissen, P., Hansen, P. C., Hutton, J. C., Evangelinou, V., Stein, J. F. (1998b): Magnocellular visual function and children's single word reading. Vision Research, 38 (3), 471482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Cornelissen, P., Richardson, A., Mason, A., Fowler, S., Stein, J. (1995): Contrast sensitivity and coherent motion detection measured at photopic luminance levels in dyslexics and controls. Vision Research, 35 (10), 14831494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Dakin, S. C., http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~smgxscd/ContourResearch.html.

  • 17. Demb, J., Boyton, G., Heeger, D. (1998): Functional magnetic resonance imaging of early visual pathways in dyslexia. The Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 69396951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Eden, G. F., van Meter, J. W., Rumsey, J., Maisog, J. M., Woods, R. P., Zeffiro, T. A. (1996a): Abnormal processing of visual motion in dyslexia revealed by functional imaging. Nature, 382, 6669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Eden, G. F., van Meter, J. W., Rumsey, J. M., Zeffiro, T. A. (1996b): The visual deficit theory of developmental dyslexia. Neuroimage, 4, S108S117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Edwards, V. T., Giaschi, D. E., Dougherty, D., Edgell, B. H., Bjornson, B. H., Lyons, C., Douglas, R. M. (2004): Psychophysical indexes of temporal processing abnormalities in children with developmental dyslexia. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 321354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Everatt, J., Bradshaw, M. F., Hibbard, P. B. (1999): Visual processing and dyslexia. Perception, 28, 243254.

  • 22. Facoetti, A. (2004): Reading and selective spatial attention: Evidence from behavioural studies in dyslexic children. In: Columbus, F. (ed.), Trends in Dyslexia Research. New York, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, 117150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Galaburda, A. M., Lo Turco, J., Ramus, F., Fitch, R. H., Rosen, G. D. (2006): From genes to behavior in developmental dyslexia. Nature Neuroscience, 9 (10), 12131216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Glass, L. (1969): Moire effect from random dots. Nature, 223, 578580.

  • 25. Greenlee, M. W., Schira, M. M., Kimmig, H. (2002): Coherent motion pops out during pursuit. NeuroReport, 13 (10), 13131316.

  • 26. Hansen, P. C., Stein, J. F., Orde, S. R., Winter, J. L., Talcott, J. B. (2001): Are dyslexics’ visual deficit limited to measures of dorsal stream function? NeuroReport, 12 (7), 15271530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Jaśkowski, P., Rusiak, P. (2005): Posterior parietal cortex and developmental dyslexia. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 65 (1), 7994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Kevan, A., Pammer, K. (2008): Visual deficits in pre-readers at familial risk for dyslexia. Vision Research, 48, 28352839.

  • 29. Kinsey, K., Oliva, V., Chase, C. (2002): Motion discrimination in dyslexic and normal children. Poster, http://www.physiol.ox.ac.uk/~kk3/CNS2002.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Kinsey, K., Hansen, P. C., Chase, C. H. (2006): Dorsal stream associations with orthographic and phonological processing. NeuroPeport, 17, 335339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Kovács, I., Julesz, B. (1993): A closed curve is much more than an incomplete one: effect of closure in figure-ground segmentation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 90, 74957497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Kovács, I., Kozma, P., Fehér, Á., Benedek, Gy. (1999): Late maturation of visual spatial integration in humans. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences USA, 96 (21), 1220412109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Kovács, I., Polat, U., Pennefather, P. M., Chandna, A., Norcia, A. M. (2000): A new test of contour integration deficits in patients with history of disrupted binocular experience during visual development. Vision Research, 40, 17751783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Kozma-Wiebe, P., Silverstein, S. M., Fehér, A., Kovács, I., Ulhaas, P., Wilkniss, S. M. (2006): Development of a word-wide web based contour integration test. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 971980.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Kuai, S-G., Yu, C. (2006): Constant contour integration in peripheral vision for stimuli with good Gestalt properties. Journal of Vision, 6, 14121420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Laycock, R., Crewther, S. G., Kiely, P. M., Crewther, D. (2006): Parietal fuction in good and poor readers. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2 (26), 114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Livingstone, M. S., Rosen, G. D., Drislane, F. W., Galaburda, A. M. (1991): Physiological and anatomical evidence for magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 88, 79437947.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Lovegrove, W. J., Bowling, A., Badcock, B., Blackwood, M. (1980): Specific reading disability: differences in contrast sensitivity as a function of spatial frequency. Science, 210, 439440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Lovegrove, W. J., Bowling, A., Badcock, D., Blackwood, M., Paxton, S. (1982): Contrast sensitivity function and specific reading disabiltiy. Neuropsychologia, 20, 309315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Merigan, W. H., Maunsell, J. H. R. (1993): How parallel are the primate visual patways? Annual Reviews of Neuroscience, 16, 369402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Newsome, W. T., Paré, E. B. (1988): A selective impairment of motion perception following sesions of the middle temporal visual area (MT). Journal of Neuroscience, 8, 22012211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., Dean, P. (2001): Developmental dyslexia: the cerebellar deficit hypothesis. Trends in Neurosciences, 24, 508511.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. O'Brien, J. M., Spencer, J. V., Tsermentseli, S. (2005): Form and motion processing in dyslexia [Abstract]. Journal of Vision, 5 (8):850, 850a, http://journalofvision.org/5/8/850/, doi:10.1167/5.8.850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Omtzigt, D., Hendricks, A. W., Kolk, H. J. (2006): Is a magnocellular deficit the cause of poor flanked-letter identification in developmental dyslexia? In: C. B. Hayes (ed.), Dyslexia in Children: New Research. New York, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, 123142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Pennefather, P. M., Chandna, A., Kovács, I., Polat, U., Norcia, A. (1999): Contour detection threshold: Repeatibility and learning with ‘contour cards’. Spatial Vision, 2 (3), 257266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Ramus, F. (2003): Developmental dyslexia: Specific phonological deficit or general sensorimotor dysfunction? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13, 212218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Ramus, F. (2004): Neurobiology of dyslexia: A reinterpretation of the data. Trends in Neuroscience, 27 (12), 720726.

  • 48. Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S. et al. (2003): Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841865.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Samar, V. J., Parasnis, I. (2007): Cortical locus of coherent motion deficit in deaf poor readers. Brain and Cognition, 63, 226239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Saviour, P., Ramachandran, N. B. (2006): Biological basis of dyslexia: A maturing perspective. Current Science, 90 (2), 168175.

  • 51. Schiller, P. H., Logothetis, N. K., Charles, E. R. (1990): Functions of the colour-opponent and broad-band channels of the visual system. Nature, 343, 6870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52. Séra L. , Révész Gy., Gy. Stefanik K. (2007): A vizuális információfeldolgozás sajátságai autista gyerekeknél. Pszichológia, 27 (2), 157178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53. Shipp, J. D. (2006): Parallel visual pathways. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, 6 (1), 2123.

  • 54. Simmers, A. J., Bex, P. J. (2001): Deficit of visual contour integration in dyslexia. Investigative Ophtalmology and Visual Science, 42 (11), 27372742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Skoczenski, A. M., Gramzow, E. F. (2005): Contour integration and hyperacuity in children with dyslexia. [Abstract]. Journal of Vision, 5 (8), 472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56. Skottun, B. C. (2000): The magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexis – the evidence of contrast sensitivity. Vision Research, 40, 111140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57. Skottun, B. C., Skoyles, J. R. (2006): Is coherent motion an appropriate test for magnocellular sensitivity? Brain and Cognition, 61, 172180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58. Spencer, J., O'Brian, J., Riggs, K., Braddick, O. J., Atkinson, J., Wattam-Bell, J. (2000): Dorsal stream deficit in autism. NeuroReport, 11, 27652767.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59. Stein, J., Talcott, J., Walsh, V. (2000): Controversy about the visual magnocellular deficit in developmental dyslexics. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4 (6), 209210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60. Stein, J., Walsh, V. (1997): To see but not read: the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. Trend sin Neurosciences, 20 (4), 147152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61. Talcott, J. B. (2004): Visual processing skills and reading deficits in reading disablity: A metaanalysis. Paper presented at 5th Word Congress of Dyslexia. Thessaloniki, Greece.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62. Talcott, J. B., Hansen, P. C., Assoku, E. L., Stein, J. F. (2000): Visual motion sensitivity in dislexia: evidence for temporal and energy integration deficits. Neuropsychologie, 38, 935943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63. Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., Hebb, G. S., Stoodley, C. J., Westwood, E. A., France, S. J., Hansen, P. C., Stein, J. F. (2002): On the relationship between dynamic visual and auditory processing and literacy skills; Results from a large primary-school study. Dyslexia, 8, 204225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64. Tanskanen, T. (2008): Dynamics of contour, object and face processing in the human visual cortex. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Helsinki. http://oa.doria.fi/handle/10024/3764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65. Tanskanen, T., Saarinen, J., Parkonnen, L. (2008): From local to global: Cortical dynamics of contour integration. Journal of Vision, 8 (7) 15, 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66. Tsermentseli, S., O'Brian, J. M., Spencer, J. V. (2008): Comparison of form and motion coherence processing in autistic sepctrum disorders and dyslexia. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 12011210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67. Ungerleider, L. G., Pasternak, T. (2004): Ventral and dorsal processing streams. In: L. Chalupa, L. M. Werner, J. S. (eds.), The Visual Neurosciences. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 541562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68. Vidyasagar, T. R. (2004): Neural underpinnings of dyslexia as a disorder of visuo-spatial attention. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 87 (1), 410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69. Whitney, C., Cornelissen, P. (2005): Letter-position encoding and dyslexia. Journal of Research in Reading, 28, 274301.

  • 70. Wilmer, J. B., Rishardson, A. J., Chen, Y., Stein, J. F. (2004): Two visual motion processing deficits in develpomental dyslexia associated with different reading skills deficits. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16 (4), 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
May 2020 0 3 1
Jun 2020 0 7 3
Jul 2020 3 1 0
Aug 2020 3 0 0
Sep 2020 14 0 0
Oct 2020 4 0 0
Nov 2020 0 0 0