View More View Less
  • 1 Kognitív Idegtudományi és Pszichológiai Intézet, MTA TTK, Budapest
Restricted access

Absztrakt

A tanulmány az öregedéssel jelentkező „pozitivitási hatást” elemzi. Számos viselkedéses és idegtudományos eredmény szerint idős személyek kevésbé negatívnak, illetve pozitívabbnak ítélnek meg eseményeket, mint fiatalok. Az összefoglalás bemutatja a jelenséget magyarázni kívánó „szocioemocinális szelektivitás” elméletet, de rámutat az empirikus adatok korlátaira is. Hangsúlyozza, hogy az életkori eltérést megalpozó idegrendszeri változásokat nem lehet egy korlátozottabb idegrendszeri hálózat működésére visszavezetni, és nem lehet egyedül idegtudományos keretek között értelmezni.

  • 1. Abe, O., Yamasue, H., Aoki, S., Suga, M., Yamada, H., Kasai, K., Masutani, Y., Kato, N., Kato, N., Ohtomo, K. (2008): Aging in the CNS: Comparison of grey/white matter volume and diffusion tensor data. Neurobiology of Aging, 29, 102116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Allen, J. S., Bruss, J., Brown, C. K., Damasio, H. (2005): Normal neuroanatomical variations due to age: The major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. Neurobiology of Aging, 26, 12451260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Bernston, G. G., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., Cacioppo, J. T. (2007): Amigdala contribution to selective dimensions of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2, 123129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Brabec, J., Rulseh, A., Hoyt, B., Vizek, M., Horinek, D., Hort, J., Petrovicky, P. (2010): Volumetry of the human amygdala – an anatomical study. Psychiatry Research, 182, 6772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Cabeza, R. (2002): Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: The HAROLD model. Psychology and Aging, 17, 85100.

  • 6. Cacioppo, J. P., Bernston, G. G., Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Hawkley, L. C. (2011): Could an aging brain contribute to subjective well-being? The value added by a socoal neuroscience perspective. In: A. Todorov, S. Fiske, D. Prentice (eds.), Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of Social Mind. New York, Oxford University Press, 249262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., Charles, S. (1999): Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 155181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Charles, S. T., Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. (2003): Aging and emotional memory: The forgettable nature of negative images for older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 310324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Czigler István (2000): Megismerési folyamatok változása felnőttkorban. In: Czigler I. (szerk.), Túl a fiatalságon. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó, 11–130. Czigler István (2005): A figyelem pszichológiája. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Denburg, N. L., Buchanan, T. W., Tranel, D., Adolphs, R. (2003): Evidence for preservedemotional memory in normal older persons. Emotion, 3, 239253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Dennis, N. A., Cabezza, R. (2008): Neuroimaging of healthy cognitive aging. In: F. I. M. Craik, T. A. Salt-house (eds), The Handbook Aging and Cognition, (3rd ed.). Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Devinsky, O., Morrell, M. J., Vogt, B. A. (1995): Contributions of anteropr cingulate cortex to behavior. Brain, 118, (pt. 1), 279306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Diener, E. (2009): Introducction to the science of well-being: Reviews and theoretical articles by Ed Diener. In: E. Diener (ed.), The Science of Well-being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener. New York, Springer, Dondrecht, 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Feng, M. C., Courtney, C. G., Mather, M., Dawson, M. E., Davison, G. C. (2011): Age-related affective modulation of the startle Eyeblink response: Older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures. Psychology and Aging, in press, DOI: 10.1037/a0023110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Fjell, A. M., Walhovd, K. B. (2010): Structural brain changes in aging: Courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 21, 187220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Gaál, Zs. A., Boha, R., Molnár, M. (2008): Does age influence the effect of emotional pictures in an auditory CNV task? International Journal of Psychophysiology, 69, 238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Gavazenni, J., Wiens, S., Fischer, J. (2008): Age effects to megative aroisal differfor self-report and electrodermal activity. Psychophysiology, 45, 148151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Grieve, S. M., Clark, C. R., Williams, L. M., Peduto, A. J., Gordon, E. (2005): Preservation of limbic and paralimbic structures in aging. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 391401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Grühn, D., Smith, J., Baltes, P. B. (2005): No aging bias favoring memory memory for positive material: Evidence for homogenity-heterogenity list paradigm using emotionally toned words. Psychology and Aging, 20, 579588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Gunning-Dixon, F. M., Gur, R. C., Perkins, A. C., Schroeder, L., Turner, T., Turetsky, B. I., Gnah, R. M., Loughead, J. W., Alsop, D. C., Maldjian, J., Gur, R. E. (2003): Age-related differences in brain activation during emotional face processing. Neurobiology of Aging, 24, 285295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Isaacowitz, D. M., Wadlinger, H. A., Goren, D., Wilson, H. R. (2006): Selective preference in visual fixation away from negative images in old age? An eye-tracking study. Psychology and Aging, 21, 4048.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Ito, T. A., Larsen, J. T., Smith, N. K., Cacioppo, J. T. (1998): Negative information weightsmore heavily on the brain: The negativity bias in evaluative categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 887900.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Izard, C. C. (1990): Facial expressions and the regulation of emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 487498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Junghoefer, M., Bradley, M. M., Elbert, T. R., Lang, P. J. (2001): Fleeting images: A new look at early discrimination. Psychophysiology, 38, 175178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Kennedy, Q., Mather, M., Carstensen, L. L. (2004): The role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographic memory. Psychological Science, 15, 208204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Kisley, M. A., Wood, S., Burrows, C. L. (2007): Looking at the sunny side of life: Age-related changes in an event-related potential measure of negativity bias. Psychological Science, 18, 838843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Kryla-Lighthall, N., Mather, M. (2009): The role cognitive control in older adults’ emotional well-being. In: V. Berngston, D. Gans, N. Putney, M. Silverstein (eds), Handbook of Theories of Aging, 2nd edition, New York, Heidelberg, Springer Publishing, 323344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., Culbert, B. N. (2005): International affective picture system (IAPS): Digitalized photographs, instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report A-6. Gainsville, FL, University of Florida.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Langeslag, S. J. E., Van Strien, J. W. (2008): Aging and emotional memory: The co-occurrence of neurophysiological and behavioral positivity effects. Emotion, 9, 369377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Levenson, R. W., Carstensen, L. L., Friesen, W. V., Ekman, P. (1991): Emotion, physiology and expression in old age. Psychology and Aging, 6, 2835. Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., Whitfield, S., Wais, P., Ochsner, K., Gabrieli, J. D., Carstensen, L. L. (2004): Amygdala responses to emotioally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults. Psychological Science, 15, 259263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Mientalowski, A., Corballis, P. M., Blanchard-Fields, F., Parks, N. A., Hilimire, M. R. (2011): Anger management: Age differences in emotional modulation of visual processing. Psychology and Aging, 26, 224231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Nashiro, K., Sakaki, M., Mather, M. (2011): Age differences in brain activity during emotion processing: Reflections of age-related decline or increased emotional regulation? Gerontology, in press, DOI: 10.1159/000328465.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Pessola, L., Adolphs, R. (2010): Emotional processing and the amygdala: From ‘low road’ to ‘many roads’ of evaluating biological significance. Nature Reviews of Neuroscience, 11, 773783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Petit-Talboue, M. C., Landeau, B., Desson, J. F., Desgranges, B., Baron, J. C. (1998): Effects of healthy aging ont he regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose assessed with statistical parametric mapping. NeuroImage, 7, 176184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Raz, N., Gunning, F. M., Head, D., Dupius, J. H., McQuain, J., Biggs, S. D., Loken, W. J., Thornton, A. E., Acker, J. D. (1997): Selective aging of the human cerebral cortex obserevd in vivo: Differential vulnerabilityof the prefrontal grey matter. Cerebral Cortex, 7, 268282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Realo, A., Dobevall, H. (2011): Does life satisfaction change with age? A comparison of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Sweden. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 297308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Ruffman, T., Henry, J. D., Livingstone, V., Philips, L. H. (2008): A meta-analytic review of emotion recognition and aging: Implications for neuropsychological model of aging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 863881.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Schupp, H. T., Culbert, B. N., Bradley, M. M., Cacioppo, J. T., Ito, T., Lang, P. J. (2000): Affective picture processing: The late positive potential is modulated by motivational relevance. Psychophysiology, 37, 257261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Schupp, H. T., Junghofer, M., Weike, A. I., Hamm, A. O. (2003): Attention and emotion: An ERP analysis of facilitated emotional stimulus processing. NeuroReport, 14, 713.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Smith, M. L., Hillman, C. H., Duley, A. R. (2005): Influences of age on emotional reactivity during picture processing. Journal of Gerontology, Ser. B., Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60B, 4956.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Sotigu, I., Galati, D., Manzuno, M., Rogioni, E. (2011): Happiness components and their attainment in old age: A cross-cultural comparison between Italy and Cuba. Journal of Happiness studies, 12, 353371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. St. Jacques, P., Dolcos, F., Cabezza, R. (2009): Effects of aging on functional connectivity of the amygdala for subsequent memory of negative pictures: A network analysis of fMRI data. Psychological Science, 20, 7484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. St. Jacques, P, Dolcos, F., Cabezza, R. (2010): Effects of aging on functional connectivity of the anygdala during negative evaluation: A network analysis of fMRI data. Neurobiology of Aging, 31, 315327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. St. Jacques, P. L., Besette-Symons, B., Cabeza, R. (in press): Functional neuroimaging studies of aging and emotion: Front-amygdalar differences during emotional perception and and episodic memory. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Szondy Máté (2007): A megbocsátásra való hajlam kapcsolata a szociodemográfiai jellemzőkkel, az optimizmussal és a boldogsággal. Pszichológia, 27, 221238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Urry, H. L., Van Reekum, C. M., Johnsstone, T., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Schaefer, H. S., Jackson, C. A., Frye, C. J., Greischar, L. L., Alexander, A. L., Davidson, R. J. (2006): Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 44154425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Weisz, J., Czigler, I. (2006): Age and novelty: Event-related brain potentials and autonomic activity. Psychophysiology, 43, 261271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Wieser, M. J., Mühlberger, A., Kennter-Mabiala, R., Pauli, P. (2006): Is emotional processing affected by advancing age? An event-related potential study. Brain Research, 1096, 138147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Williams, L. M., Brown, L. K. J., Palmer, D., Liddell, B., Kemp, A. H., Oliveri, G., Peduto, A., Gordon, E. (2006): The mellow Years?: Neural basis of improving emotional stability over age. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 64226430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50. Yonelinas, A. P. (2002): The nature of recollection and familiarity: A review of 30 years of research. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 441517.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation