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  • 1 MTA Természettudományi Kutatóközpont, Budapest
  • 2 Pszichológiai Intézet, Fejlődés- és Klinikai Gyermekpszichológia Tanszék, ELTE PPK, Budapest
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Absztrakt

Az érzelmek detektálása, megkülönböztetése és felismerése alapvető társas képességeink egyike, mely a perceptuális rendszerek érésével, valamint a gyarapodó szociális tapasztalatokkal párhuzamosan fejlődik. A jelen tanulmány célja összefoglalást nyújtani az érzelemfeldolgozó képesség csecsemőkori kialakulásának elméleti hátteréről, vizsgálati módszereiről, valamint a konkrét életkorhoz köthető kutatási eredményekről az első életév során.

Az érzelemkifejezések először feltehetően multimodális ingerként válnak felismerhetővé, később pedig már önmagában akusztikus vagy vizuális modalitásban is elkülöníthetők a csecsemők számára. Viselkedési és pszichofiziológiai vizsgálati módszerek segítségével megállapítható, hogy a csecsemők 3–4 hónapos korra kezdik differenciálni a vidám, meglepett, szomorú, félelemteli és haragos érzelemkifejezéseket, melyek közül először a vidám arcokat preferálják, majd kb. 7 hónapos kortól kiemelkedő jelentősége van a félelemnek és a haragnak. Az eredmények általánosíthatóságát azonban a módszerek sokfélesége valamelyest korlátozza.

A fejlődés során az érzelmek reprezentációjára jelentős hatással vannak a saját tapasztalatok, azaz a csecsemő korábban diszkriminálja a környezetében gyakrabban előforduló érzelmeket. Az uralkodó keresztmetszeti kutatások mellett pontosabban feltárhatóvá válna a csecsemők érzelemdiszkriminációs képességének fejlődése, ha a vizsgálatok longitudinális keretben, természetesebb dinamikus ingereket alkalmaznának, valamint figyelembe vennék az egyéni, biológiai meghatározottságot, illetve a specifikus affektív környezetet is.

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