View More View Less
  • 1 Kognitív Pszichológiai Tanszék, ELTE PPK, Budapest
Restricted access

Absztrakt

Tanulmányunk második részében, folytatva a korábbiakban elkezdett gondolatmenetet az idő fogalmának fejlődési kérdéseiről, olyan jelenségeken keresztül szemléltetjük a kora gyermekkori emlékezeti működés sérülékeny voltát és annak feltételezhető hátterét, mint a forrásemlékezet, a realitásmonitorozás vagy a befolyásolhatóság. Önmagunk elhelyezése az események láncolatában, az időben kiterjesztett szelf megértése azonban nem kizárólag a múltbeli események személyes tapasztalatként való megőrzésében szükséges, ugyanígy a jövőbeli események tervezése, tapasztalást előrevetítő elképzelése során is, így e képességek összefonódásának a fejlődés folyamatában külön figyelmet szentelünk. Végül a perspektívaváltás képességének korai kibontakozásával foglalkozunk, hiszen az átélt eseményekre személyesen megtapasztaltként, első személyű perspektívából emlékezni, úgy véljük, önmagában egy fejlődési folyamat eredménye (és nem kiinduló állapot), amely az autonoetikus emlékezésmód elérhetővé válásán keresztül hozzájárul az emlékek egyedi, megkülönböztető jegyekkel való gazdagításához és az idő szubjektív élményének megértéséhez.

  • 1. Aichorn, M., Perner, J., Kronbichler, M., Staffen, W., Ladurner, G. (2006): Do visual perspective tasks need theory of mind? Neuroimage, 30, 10591068.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Atance, C. M., O'Neill, D. K. (2001): Episodic future thinking. Trends in Cognitive Science, 5, 533539. Brooks, R., Meltzoff, A. N. (2002): The importance of eyes: How infants interpret adult looking behavior. Developmental Psychology, 38 (6), 958966.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Bruck, M., Ceci, S. (1999): The suggestibility of children's memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 419439.

  • 4. Bruck, M., Ceci, S. (2004): Forensic developmental psychology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 229232.

  • 5. Busby, J., Suddendorf, T. (2005): Recalling yesterday and predicting tomorrow. Cognitive Development, 20, 362372.

  • 6. Campbell, J. (2003): Paper presented at ESF Explanatory Workshop on Emotion, Consciousness and Self Consciousness, Cambdidge, 21st March – 23rd March.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Ceci, S. J., Huffman, M. L. C., Smith, E. (1994): Repeatedly thinking about a non-event: Source misattributions among preschoolers. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 388407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Doherty, M., Perner, J. (1998): Metalinguistic awareness and theory of mind: Just two words for the same thing? Cognitive Development, 13, 279305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Elias, N. (1990): Az időről. In: Gellériné Lázár M. (szerk.), Időben élni. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó.

  • 10. Fivush, R. (2000): Owning experience: Developing subjective perspevtive in autobiographical narratives. In: C. Moore, K. Lemmon (eds), The Self in Time: Developmental Perspectives, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Fivush, R., Hamond, N. (1990): Autobiographical memory across the preschool years: Toward reconceptualizing childhood amnesia. In: R. Fivush, J. Hudson (eds), Knowing and Remembering in Young Children. New York, Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Foley, M. A., Harris, J. F., Hermann, S. (1994): Developmental comparisons of the ability to discriminate between memories for symbolic play enactments. Developmental Psychology, 30 (2), 206217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Foley, M. A., Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L. (1983): Age-related changes in confusion between memories for thoughts and memories for speech. Child Development, 54, 5160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Friedman, W. J. (1993): Memory for the time of past events. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 4446. Gathercole, S. E. (1998): The development of memory. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Golding, P. (2003): Paper presented at Esf Explanatory Workshop on Emotion, Consciousness and Self Consciousness, Cambridge, 21st March – 23rd March.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Hoerl, C. (1999): Memory, amnesia and the past. Mind & Language, 14 (2), 227251.

  • 17. Johnson, M. K., Nolde, S. F., De Leonardis, D. M. (1996): Emotional focus and source monitoring. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 135156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L. (1981): Reality monitoring. Psychological Review, 88, 6785.

  • 19. Király, I. (2002): Kisgyermekek eseményemlékezetének fejlődése: Utánzás és emlékezet. Budapest, Gondolat Kiadói Kör.

  • 20. Kovacs, S. L., Newcombe, N. S. (2006): Developements in source monitoring: The role of thinking of others. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 2544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Loftus, E. F., Scooler, J., Wagenaar, W. (1985): The fate of memory: Comment on McCloskey & Zaragoza. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 375380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. McCloskey, M., Zaragoza, M. (1985): Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory imapairment hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. McColgan, K. L., McCormack, T. (2008): Searching and planning: Young children's reasoning about past and future event sequences. Child Development, 79 (5), 14771497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. McCormack, T. (1999): Temporal concepts and episodic memory: A response to Hoerl. Mind & Language, 14 (2), 252262.

  • 25. McCormack, T., Hoerl, C. (2001): The child in time: Episodic memory and the concept of the past. In: C. Moore, K. Lemmon (eds), The Self in Time: Developmental Issues. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 203227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. McCormack, T., Hoerl, C. (2007): Young children's reasoning about the order of past events. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 98, 168183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27. Moll, H., Tomasello, M. (2004): 12- and 18-month-old infants follow gaze to spaces behind barriers. Developmental Science, 7 (1), F1F9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Moll, H., Tomasello, M. (2006): Level I perspective-taking at 24 months of age. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 603613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29. Nelson, K. (1996): Language in Cognitive Development: The Emergence of the Mediated Mind. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

  • 30. Nelson, K., Fivush, R. (2000): Socialization of memory. In: E. Tulving, F. I. M. Craik (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. New York, Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Parkin, A. J. (1997): The development of procedural and declarative memory. In: N. Cowan, C. Hulme (eds), The Development of Memory in Childhood. Hove, Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Perner, J. (2000a): Memory and theory of mind. In: E. Tulving, F. I. M. Craik (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. New York, Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33. Perner, J. (2000b): Episodic memory: Essential distinctions and developmental implications. In: C. Moore, K. Skene (eds), The Self in Time: Developmental Issues. Hilsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Perner, J., Brandl, J., Garnham, A. (2003): What is a perspective problem? Developmental issues in understanding belief and dual identity. Facta Philosophica, 5, 355378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Perner, J., Kloo, D., Gornik, E. (2007): Episodic memory development: Theory of mind is part of re-experiencing experienced events. Infant and Child Development, 16, 471490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Perner, J., Ruffman, T. (1995): Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: Developmental evidence and a theory of childhood amnesia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 59, 516548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37. Perner, J., Stummer, S., Sprung, M., Doherty, M. (2002): Theory of mind finds its Piagetian perspective: Why alternative naming comes with understanding belief. Cognitive Development, 17, 14511472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38. Perner, J., Zauner, P., Sprung, M. (2005): What does ‘That’ have to do with points of view? Conflicting desires and the case of ‘Want’ in German. In: J. W. Astington, J. Baird (eds), Why Language Matters for Theory of Mind. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Povinelli, D. J. (1995): The unduplicated self. In: P. Rochat (ed.), The Self in Infancy. Elsevier.

  • 40. Povinelli, D. J., Laundry, A. M., Theall, L. A., Clark, B. R., Castille, C. M. (1999): Development of young children's understanding that recent past is causally bound to the present. Developmental Psychology, 35 (6), 14261439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Roebers, C. M., Schneider, W. (2005): Individual differences in young children's suggestibility: Relations to event memory, language abilities, working memory and executive functioning. Cognitive Development, 20, 427447.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Roberts, K. P. (2002): Children's ability to distinguish between memories from multiple sources: Implications for the quality and accuracy of eyewitness statements. Developmental Review, 22, 403435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. Roberts, K. P., Blades, M. (1999): Children's memory and source monitoring of real-life and televised events. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 20, 575596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Schank, Roger C., Abelson, Robert P. (1977): Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Scullin, M. H., Bonner, K. (2006): Theory of mind, inhibitory control and preschool-age children's suggestibility in different interviewing contexts. Journal of Experimental Child Pschology, 93, 120138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Sprung, M. (2003): Children's understanding of point of view: Belief and sortals. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Suddendorf, T., Nielsen, M., von Gehlen, R. (2011): Children's capicity to remember a novel problem and to secure its future solution. Developmental Science, 14 (1), 2333.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48. Sussman, A. L. (2001): Reality monitoring of performed and imagined interactive events: Developmental and contextual effects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79, 115138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49. Szedlák, N. (2003): A célok szerepe az eseményemlékezet fejlődésében. Tudomány és Lélek, 2003/1.

  • 50. Szpunar, K. K., McDermott, K. B. (2008): Episodic future thought: Remembering the past to imagine the future. In: K. D. Markman, W. M. P. Klein, J. A. Suhr (eds), The Handbook of Imagination and Mental Simulation. New York, Psychology Press, 119129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51. Taylor, M., Esbensen, B. M., Bennett, R. T. (1994): Children's understanding of knowledge acquisition: The tendency for children to report that they have always known what they have just learned. Child Development, 65, 15811604.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52. Tulving, E. (1983): Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

  • 53. Tulving, E. (1985): Hány emlékezeti rendszer létezik? In: Kónya A. (szerk.), Az emberi emlékezet pszichológiai elméletei. Budapest, Tankönyvkiadó, 1990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54. Usher, J. A., Neisser, U. (1993): Childhood amnesia and the beginnings of memory for four early life events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122(2), 155165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55. Welch-Ross, M. K. (1999): Preschoolers’ understanding of mind: Implications for suggestibility. Cognitive Development, 14, 101131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56. Welch-Ross, M. K., Diecidue, K., Miller, S. A. (1997): Children's understanding of conflicting mental representation predicts suggestibility. Developmental Psychology, 33, 4353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation