View More View Less
  • 1 Pécsi Egyetem Pszichológiai Intézete Pécs Magyarország
Restricted access

Mind a valós életbeli szituációkban, mind kísérleti játékhelyzetekben hatékonyan mozdítja elő a kooperációt az ún. erős negatív reciprocitás vagy altruista büntetés, ahol is a személy saját költségére is szankciókat ró a normaszegőkre. Ugyanakkor valószínű, hogy a szociális kontextus és a résztvevők személyiségének függvényében a büntetés alternatív szerepekre tehet szert. A büntető viselkedés megjelenését vizsgáltuk 80 fő részvételével, erősen versengő jellegű Közjavak játék keretein belül. A közjóhoz való hozzájárulások mértéke a játék alatt a büntetési lehetőség ellenére folyamatosan csökkent. A hozzájárulások mértéke nem gyakorolt szignifikáns hatást sem a kapott, sem pedig a kiosztott büntetésekre. Az eredmények arra utalnak, hogy bizonyos szociális kontextusok (jelen esetben az intenzív versengés) módosító hatással lehetnek a büntetés által játszott szerepre. A résztvevők a magasabb helyezés és az anyagilag eredményesebb végkifejlet elérése érdekében büntették egymást. A büntetés ahelyett, hogy az erős reciprocitás elméletének megfelelően másodlagos kooperációként működött volna, a rivalizálás eszközévé vált. Ezek az eredmények a szükséges módosítások lehetőségét vetik fel a büntető mechanizmusok azon szociális feltételeiben, melyeket az erős reciprocitás elmélete az emberi együttműködés evolúciós magyarázataként határoz meg.

  • Axelrod, R., Hamilton, W. D. (1981): The evolution of cooperation. Science, New Series, 211, 4489, 1390–1396.

    Hamilton W D , 'The evolution of cooperation ' (1981 ) 211 Science, New Series : 1390 -1396.

  • Balliet, D., Mulder, L. B., Van Lange, P. A. M. (2011): Reward, punishment, and cooperation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 594–615.

    Van Lange P A M , 'Reward, punishment, and cooperation: A meta-analysis ' (2011 ) 137 Psychological Bulletin : 594 -615.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bereczkei, T., Birkas, B., Kerekes, Zs. (2007): Public charity offer as a proximate factor of evolved reputation-building strategy: An experimental analysis of a real life situation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 277–284.

    Kerekes Zs , 'Public charity offer as a proximate factor of evolved reputation-building strategy: An experimental analysis of a real life situation ' (2007 ) 28 Evolution and Human Behavior : 277 -284.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bereczkei Tamás (2009): Az erény természete. Önzetlenség, együttműködés, nagylelkűség. Budapest, Typotex Kiadó.

    Bereczkei T , '', in Az erény természete. Önzetlenség, együttműködés, nagylelkűség , (2009 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bochet, O., Page, T., Putterman, L. (2006): Communication and punishment in voluntary contribution experiment. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 60, 11–26.

    Putterman L , 'Communication and punishment in voluntary contribution experiment ' (2006 ) 60 Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization : 11 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bowles, S., Gintis, H. (2011): A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and its Evolution. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.

    Gintis H , '', in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and its Evolution , (2011 ) -.

  • Boyd, R., Richerson, P. J. (2009): Culture and the evolution of human cooperation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 364, 3281–3288.

    Richerson P J , 'Culture and the evolution of human cooperation ' (2009 ) 364 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B : 3281 -3288.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bull, C., Schotter, A., Weigelt, K. (1987): Tournaments and piece rates: An experimental study. Journal of Political Economy, 95, 1–33.

    Weigelt K , 'Tournaments and piece rates: An experimental study ' (1987 ) 95 Journal of Political Economy : 1 -33.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Burks, S. V., Carpenter, J. P., Goette, L. (2006): Performance pay and the erosion of worker cooperation: Field experimental evidence. IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2013, http://hdl.handle.net/10419/33365

    Goette L , '', in IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2013 , (2006 ) -.

  • Camerer, C. F., Fehr, E. (2004): Measuring social norms and preferences using experimental games: A guide for social scientists. In: J. Henrich, R. Boyd, S. Bowles, C. Camerer, E. Fehr, H. Gintis (eds), Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 55–96.

    Fehr E , '', in Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies , (2004 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carpenter, J. P. (2007): The demand for punishment. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 62, 522–542.

    Carpenter J P , 'The demand for punishment ' (2007 ) 62 Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization : 522 -542.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Carpenter, P. J., Seki, E. (2006): Competitive work environments and social preferences: Field experimental evidence from a Japanese fishing community. Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy, 5, 1–23.

    Seki E , 'Competitive work environments and social preferences: Field experimental evidence from a Japanese fishing community ' (2006 ) 5 Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy : 1 -23.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chagnon, N. A. (1988): Life histories, blood revenge, and warfare in a tribal population. Science, 239, 985–992.

    Chagnon N A , 'Life histories, blood revenge, and warfare in a tribal population ' (1988 ) 239 Science : 985 -992.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Chen, K. P. (2003): Sabotage in promotion tournaments. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 19, 11–140.

    Chen K P , 'Sabotage in promotion tournaments ' (2003 ) 19 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization : 11 -140.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dawkins, R. (1986): Az önző gén. Budapest, Gondolat Kiadó.

    Dawkins R , '', in Az önző gén , (1986 ) -.

  • Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1989): Human Ethology. New York, Aldine de Gruyter.

    Eibl-Eibesfeldt I , '', in Human Ethology , (1989 ) -.

  • Falk, A., Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U. (2005): Driving forces behind informal sanctions. Econometrica, 73, 2017–2030.

    Fischbacher U , 'Driving forces behind informal sanctions ' (2005 ) 73 Econometrica : 2017 -2030.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Falk, A., Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U. (2008): Testing theories of fairness — Intentions matter. Games and Economic Behavior, 62, 287–303.

    Fischbacher U , 'Testing theories of fairness — Intentions matter ' (2008 ) 62 Games and Economic Behavior : 287 -303.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E. (2009): On the economics and biology of trust. Journal of the European Economics Association, 7, 235–266.

    Fehr E , 'On the economics and biology of trust ' (2009 ) 7 Journal of the European Economics Association : 235 -266.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U. (2002): Why social preferences matter — The impact of non-selfish motives on competition, cooperation and incentives. The Economic Journal, 112, C1–C33.

    Fischbacher U , 'Why social preferences matter — The impact of non-selfish motives on competition, cooperation and incentives ' (2002 ) 112 The Economic Journal : C1 -C33.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U. (2003): The nature of human altruism. Nature, 425, 785–791.

    Fischbacher U , 'The nature of human altruism ' (2003 ) 425 Nature : 785 -791.

  • Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U. (2004): Social norms and human cooperation. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 185–190.

    Fischbacher U , 'Social norms and human cooperation ' (2004 ) 8 TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences : 185 -190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U. (2005): Human altruism — Proximate patterns and evolutionary origins. Analyse & Kritik, 27, 6–47.

    Fischbacher U , 'Human altruism — Proximate patterns and evolutionary origins ' (2005 ) 27 Analyse & Kritik : 6 -47.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U., Gaechter, S. (2002): Strong reciprocity, human cooperation and the enforcement of social norms. Human Nature, 13, 1–25.

    Gaechter S , 'Strong reciprocity, human cooperation and the enforcement of social norms ' (2002 ) 13 Human Nature : 1 -25.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Gaechter, S. (2000): Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments. American Economic Review, 90, 980–994.

    Gaechter S , 'Cooperation and punishment in public goods experiments ' (2000 ) 90 American Economic Review : 980 -994.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Gaechter, S. (2002): Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature, 415, 137–140.

    Gaechter S , 'Altruistic punishment in humans ' (2002 ) 415 Nature : 137 -140.

  • Fehr, E., Gintis, H. (2007): Human motivation and social cooperation: Experimental and analytical foundations. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 43–64.

    Gintis H , 'Human motivation and social cooperation: Experimental and analytical foundations ' (2007 ) 33 Annual Review of Sociology : 43 -64.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Henrich, J. (2002): Is strong reciprocity a maladaptation? On the evolutionary foundations of human altruism. In: P. Hammerstein (ed.), Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Dahlem Workshop Reports. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 55–83.

    Henrich J , '', in Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Dahlem Workshop Reports , (2002 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Hoff, K., Kshetramade, M. (2008): Spite and development. American Economic Review — Papers & Proceedings, 98, 494–499.

    Kshetramade M , 'Spite and development ' (2008 ) 98 American Economic Review — Papers & Proceedings : 494 -499.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Rockenbach, B. (2004): Human altruism: Economic, neural, and evolutionary perspectives. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 784–790.

    Rockenbach B , 'Human altruism: Economic, neural, and evolutionary perspectives ' (2004 ) 14 Current Opinion in Neurobiology : 784 -790.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fehr, E., Schmidt, K. (1999): A theory of fairness, competition and cooperation. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114, 817–868.

    Schmidt K , 'A theory of fairness, competition and cooperation ' (1999 ) 114 Quarterly Journal of Economics : 817 -868.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fischbacher, U. (2007): Z-Tree: Zurich toolbox for ready-made economic experiments. Experimental Economics, 10, 171–178.

    Fischbacher U , 'Z-Tree: Zurich toolbox for ready-made economic experiments ' (2007 ) 10 Experimental Economics : 171 -178.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fischbacher, U., Gaechter, S., Fehr, E. (2001): Are people conditionally cooperative? Evidence from a public goods experiment. Economics Letters, 71, 397–404.

    Fehr E , 'Are people conditionally cooperative? Evidence from a public goods experiment ' (2001 ) 71 Economics Letters : 397 -404.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fowler, J. H. (2005): Altruistic punishment and the origin of cooperation. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America), 102, 7047–7049.

    Fowler J H , 'Altruistic punishment and the origin of cooperation ' (2005 ) 102 PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America) : 7047 -7049.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fülöp, M. (2009): Happy and Unhappy Competitors: What Makes the Difference? Psychological Topics, 18(2), 345–367.

    Fülöp M , 'Happy and Unhappy Competitors: What Makes the Difference? ' (2009 ) 18 Psychological Topics : 345 -367.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fülöp, M., Takács, S. (2013): The cooperative competitive citizen: What does it take? Citizenship Teaching & Learning, 8(2), 131–156. doi: 10.1386/ctl.8.2.131_1

    Takács S , 'The cooperative competitive citizen: What does it take? ' (2013 ) 8 Citizenship Teaching & Learning : 131 -156.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gaechter, S., Herrmann, B. (2009): Reciprocity, culture, and human cooperation: Previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B — Biological Sciences, 364, 791–806.

    Herrmann B , 'Reciprocity, culture, and human cooperation: Previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment ' (2009 ) 364 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B — Biological Sciences : 791 -806.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gintis, H. (2000): Strong reciprocity and human sociality. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 213, 103–119.

    Gintis H , 'Strong reciprocity and human sociality ' (2000 ) 213 Journal of Theoretical Biology : 103 -119.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gintis, H. (2008): Punishment and cooperation. Science, 319, 1345–1346.

    Gintis H , 'Punishment and cooperation ' (2008 ) 319 Science : 1345 -1346.

  • Gintis, H. (2009): Game theory and human behavior. In: H. Gintis, The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 45–83.

    Gintis H , '', in The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences , (2009 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gintis, H., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., Fehr, E. (2003): Explaining altruistic behavior in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 153–172.

    Fehr E , 'Explaining altruistic behavior in humans ' (2003 ) 24 Evolution and Human Behavior : 153 -172.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gintis, H., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., Fehr, E. (2008): Gene — culture coevolution and the emergence of altruistic behavior in humans. In: C. Crawford, D. Krebs (eds), Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology. New York, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 313–331.

    Fehr E , '', in Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology , (2008 ) -.

  • Gintis, H., Henrich, J., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., Fehr, E. (2007): Strong reciprocity and the roots of human morality. Social Justice Research, 21, 241–253.

    Fehr E , 'Strong reciprocity and the roots of human morality ' (2007 ) 21 Social Justice Research : 241 -253.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hamilton, W. D. (1964): The genetical evolution of social behaviour. The Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–52.

    Hamilton W D , 'The genetical evolution of social behaviour ' (1964 ) 7 The Journal of Theoretical Biology : 1 -52.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Herrmann, B., Thöni, C., Gaechter, S. (2008): Antisocial punishment across societies. Science, 319, 1362–1367.

    Gaechter S , 'Antisocial punishment across societies ' (2008 ) 319 Science : 1362 -1367.

  • Lazear, E. P., Rosen, S. (1981): Rank-order tournaments as optimum labor contracts. Journal of Political Economy, 89, 841–864.

    Rosen S , 'Rank-order tournaments as optimum labor contracts ' (1981 ) 89 Journal of Political Economy : 841 -864.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McElreath, R., Clutton-Brock, T. H., Fehr, E., Fessler, D. M. T., Hagen, E. H., Hammerstein, P., Kosfeld, M., Milinski, M., Silk. J. B., Tooby, J., Wilson, M. I. (2003): Group report: The role of cognition and emotion in cooperation. In: P. Hammerstein (ed.), Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Dahlem Workshop Reports. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 125–153.

    Wilson M I , '', in Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Dahlem Workshop Reports , (2003 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Milinski, M., Semmann, D., Bakker, T. C. M., Krambeck, H. J. (2001): Cooperation through indirect reciprocity: Image scoring or standing strategy? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 268, 2495–2501.

    Krambeck H J , 'Cooperation through indirect reciprocity: Image scoring or standing strategy? ' (2001 ) 268 Proceedings of the Royal Society B : 2495 -2501.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mulder, L. B. (2008): The difference between punishments and rewards in fostering moral concerns in social decision making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1436–1443.

    Mulder L B , 'The difference between punishments and rewards in fostering moral concerns in social decision making ' (2008 ) 44 Journal of Experimental Social Psychology : 1436 -1443.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nicklisch, A., Wolff, I. (2009): Cooperation norms in multiple-stage punishment. Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, 40, 1–35.

    Wolff I , 'Cooperation norms in multiple-stage punishment ' (2009 ) 40 Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods : 1 -35.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nikiforakis, N. (2010): Feedback, punishment and cooperation in public good experiments. Games and Economic Behaviour, 68, 689–702.

    Nikiforakis N , 'Feedback, punishment and cooperation in public good experiments ' (2010 ) 68 Games and Economic Behaviour : 689 -702.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nowak, M. A., Sigmund, K. (1998): Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature, 393, 573–577.

    Sigmund K , 'Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring ' (1998 ) 393 Nature : 573 -577.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Roberts, G. (1998): Competitive altruism: From reciprocity to the handicap principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 265, 427–431.

    Roberts G , 'Competitive altruism: From reciprocity to the handicap principle ' (1998 ) 265 Proceedings of the Royal Society B : 427 -431.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rosen, S. (1986): Prizes and incentives in elimination tournaments. The American Economic Review, 76, 701–715.

    Rosen S , 'Prizes and incentives in elimination tournaments ' (1986 ) 76 The American Economic Review : 701 -715.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Trivers, R. L. (1971): The evolution of reciprocal altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 46(1), 35–57.

    Trivers R L , 'The evolution of reciprocal altruism ' (1971 ) 46 The Quarterly Review of Biology : 35 -57.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Van Lange, P. A. M., De Cremer, D., Van Dijk, E., Van Vugt, M. (2007): Self-interest and beyond: Basic principles of social interaction. In: A. W. Kruglanski, E. T. Higgins (eds), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. New York, Guilford, 540–561.

    Van Vugt M , '', in Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles , (2007 ) -.

  • Van Lange, P. A. M., Joireman, J. A. (2008): How we can promote behaviour that serves us all in the future. Social Issues and Policy Review, 2, 127–157.

    Joireman J A , 'How we can promote behaviour that serves us all in the future ' (2008 ) 2 Social Issues and Policy Review : 127 -157.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Van Vugt, M., Van Lange, P. A. M. (2006): The altruism puzzle: Psychological adaptations for prosocial behavior. In: M. Schaller, J. A. Simpson, D. T. Kenrick (eds), Evolution and Social Psychology. New York, Psychology Press, 237–263.

    Van Lange P A M , '', in Evolution and Social Psychology , (2006 ) -.

  • Wedekind, C., Milinski, M. (2000): Cooperation through image scoring in humans. Science, 288(5467), 850–852.

    Milinski M , 'Cooperation through image scoring in humans ' (2000 ) 288 Science : 850 -852.

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2020 0 0 0
Jul 2020 3 2 0
Aug 2020 1 0 0
Sep 2020 4 0 0
Oct 2020 0 0 0
Nov 2020 10 4 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0