The intake and tissue distribution of thorium (2 3 2Th) was studied in an urban (Bombay) population in India. From the analysis of 16 whole diet samples, the average daily intake through food was found to be 2 g (range 0.8–4.3 g·d–1). The estimated intake through drinking water and inhalation comes out to be 0.03 and 0.02 g per day. From the analysis of human autopsy tissue samples it is observed that the concentration ranges in lungs and bone are 1.5–16 g/kg and 0.2–9.0 g/kg fresh weight respectively. The average urinary concentration is 12 ng/1 (range 7–22 ng/l for 10 samples). Among the different body tissues, pulmonary lymph nodes were found to contain the highest concentration (geometric mean 53.4 g/kg, range 31.4–85.5 g/kg for 6 samples). Analysis of the samples was done by the neutron activation technique. 311.8 keV gamma photons of2 3 3Pa which is the activation product of2 3 2Th, were counted after chemical separation. A 54 cm3 intrinsic Ge detector coupled to 1024-channel analyser was used. Using the average lung content and the daily average intake values of thorium through inhalation, the clearance half-time from lung was estimated.