Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was found to be a sensitive (2·10–12 g detection limit), accurate but destructive method for cadmium assay in bone biopsy samples (about 30 mg dry weight). The inductively coupled plasma emission technique was poorer in sensitivity (1.2·10–9 g) and is also a destructive method. Activation Analysis is still less sensitive (2·10–8 g detection limit) but a nondestructive one. Cadmium was found to accumulate in bone of rats fed, for 5 weeks, 0, 50, and 100 mg Cd/l in drinking water and the bone concentrations were 0.16, 1.09, and 2.6 mg Cd/kg bone (dry wt). Histological examination of the bones showed that cadmium induced increased osteoid surface in the bone with no evidence of accompanying kidney damage. This suggests a primary effect of cadmium on bone rather than secondary effect due to kidney damage.