The homogeneity of four reference materials was evaluated for Se by cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (CINAA). The relative standard deviation for Se measurements at ppb levels by CINAA was <12% for NIST Wheat Flour (SRM 1567) in 5–10 mg samples, while it was <11% for Chinese Hair (HH–CH-1), <13% for IAEA Animal Muscle (H-4) and 25% for IAEA Animal Blood (A-13) in 50 mg samples. The highest relative subsampling uncertainties were observed in the mass range of samples 50 mg for Chinese Hair, 100 mg for Wheat Flour and Animal Muscle and 300 mg for Animal Blood. The results of a one-way analysis of variance indicate that all reference materials above these mass ranges are adequately homogeneous with respect to Se distribution. Our data suggest that these materials, except Animal Blood, can be used as reference standards for Se in Quality assurance programs well below the sample masses re commended by the issuing agencies.