An examination of the literature concerning the determination of cadmium by Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) has been conducted. In-vivo activation analysis of the liver and kidney is the most common application reported and is briefly reviewed here. This review will concentrate on the determination of cadmium in in-vitro systems. These include a number of different complex matrices such as geological, environmental and biological materials, as well as water, sediments, foods and construction material. Nuclear reactors, accelerators, and radioisotopes have all been used as neutron sources with varying degrees of sensitivity.