As a rapidly growing vast country, there is need in Nigeria to develop alternative energy sources to meet its ever increasing energy demands. Tar sands apart from its popular use as a source of asphaltic material for road surfacing is a new energy raw material in Nigeria. The immense industrial applications and utilization of the by-products of tar sands provide great incentives for its development. PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in Nigerian tar sands including sulfur which occurs as pyrites, organic sulfur and sulfates. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 200 Van de Graaff accelerators at I.N.F.N. Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) at Padova, Italy, were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented, discussed, and compared with some data from previous worker and values from Athabasca (Canada).