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  • 1 Philipps-Universität Kernchemie, F.B. 14 Marburg Germany
  • 2 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Laboratory for High Energies Dubna Russia
  • 3 North-Eastern Hill University Department of Chemistry Shillong India
  • 4 University of California Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley CA USA
  • 5 China Institute of Atomic Energy Beijing China
  • 6 Gesellschaft für Nuklear Service m.b.H. GNS Essen Germany
  • 7 China Institute of Atomic Energy Section of Technical Research for Nuclear Safeguards, Department of Radiochemistry Beijing China
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An extended Cu-target was irradiated with 22 and 44 GeV carbon ions for about 11.3 and 14.7 hours, respectively. The upper side of the target was in contact with a paraffin-block for the moderation of secondary neutrons. Small holes in the moderator were filled with either lanthanum salts or uranium oxide. The reaction

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${}^{139}La(n,\gamma ){}^{140}La\mathop \to \limits^{\beta - }$$ \end{document}
was studied via the decay of140La(40h) using radiochemical methods, as has been published. The reaction
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${}^{238}U(n,\gamma )^{239} U\mathop \to \limits^{\beta - } {}^{239}Np\mathop \to \limits^{\beta - }$$ \end{document}
was studied via the decay of239Np(2.3 d) as well as the reaction U(n,f) using radiochemical methods. In addition, solid state nuclear track detectors were used for fission studies in gold. The yields for the formation of (n,) products agree essentially with other experiments on extended targets carried out at the Dubna Synchrophasotron (LHE, JINR). To a first approximation, the breeding rate of (n, ) products doubles when the carbon energy increases from 22 to 44 GeV. If, however, results at 44 GeV are compared in detail to those at 22 GeV, we observe an excess of (37±9)% in the experimentally observed239Np-breeding rate over theoretical estimations. Experiments using solid state nuclear track detectors give similar results. We present a conception for the interpretation of this fact: There is the evident connection between anomalies we observe in the yield of secondary particles in relativistic heavy ion interactions above a total energy of approximately 30–35 GeV and increased yield of neutrons in this energy region.