The chemical composition of brown coal fuels and several sedimental type atmospheric particulate pollutants of industrial origin (e.g. fly-ash, bottom-ash, dust particulates from foundry-halls and casting-halls) was studied in relation to their toxic and their natural radioactive contents. In addition, some agricultural crops (e.g. soya bean, sunflower, rape, barley and luceme) sampled, in the near vicinity within a radius of about 10 km of the industrial centre were also analysed for significant distributions of any toxic components. Because of the high uranium and thorium concentrations in Hungarian coal fuels and, consequently, in various fly-ash particulate pollutants, the natural gamma activities of the samples were also measured and the relevant equilibriu states of the232Th and238U natural decay series were studied.