In order to improve the accuracy of reactor neutron activation analysis, flux gradients and spectrum changes in the irradiation capsule have been studied at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). The flux and spectrum monitoring samples of Fe, Co, Au, Sb, U and Ni were placed at several positions in a polyethylene irradiation capsule of 24 mm inner diameter and 98 mm length, and were irradiated in a pneumatic irradiation facility (Pn-2). The flux gradients were found to be rather negligible in the vertical (axial) direction while they were considerable in the radial one. The flux gradient was around 5%/cm for thermal neutrons and 10%/cm for epithermal and fast neutrons. The spectrum changes were dependent on the materials (polyethylene and silica) filled in the capsule. Based on these observations, the effect of the flux gradients and spectrum changes on the accuracy of reactor neutron activation analysis was discussed.