Metrology systems are being established by various countries for the worldwide comparability of data related to trade, industrial products, health, and the environment. This has in turn led to an increased interest in methods that have the highest possible accuracy and precision. The relevance of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for metrological science has been evaluated. It is concluded that INAA is a suitable technique for method validation, proficiency testing, development of reference materials and reference methods. Moreover, it is concluded that INAA may comply with the CCQM definition of a definitive or primary ratio method provided that the uncertainty in the results is reduced to much lower levels compared to those currently encountered in most NAA laboratories.