Chemical treatment assumes an important role in the management of radioactive wastes as it is a simple technique and offers advantage in terms of handling of wastes thereby reducing the risk of mansievert exposure. Low level wastes (LLW) and intermediate level wastes (ILW) are generated in various facets of nuclear fuel cycle and have various chemical composition. A systematic study was carried out by using copper ferrocyanide and calcium phosphate precipitation methods for the removal of cesium and strontium, respectively. The supernatants were subjected to ultra filtration (UF) using a membrane having a pore size of 0.2 m. The decontamination factors (DF) at 2 and 24-hour intervals with and without UF were estimated. The DF obtained was in the range of 200–300 for cesium and 200 for strontium with LLW solution which has chemical characteristics similar to ground water. Two hours of settling is adequate for strontium before UF. In case of cesium there is no much change in the DF values by UF. However, the UF has helped in the solid — liquid separation as the flocks of copper ferrocyanide precipitate are feathery in nature. The effect of ionic strength and the presence of TBP on the removal efficiency of cesium and strontium have also been studied. DF are observed to be a function of ionic strength and are low in deionized water, in salt solutions containing 1 to 4M sodium nitrate and also in solutions of ILW. However, increasing the chemical dosing to two times of normal plant dosing has yielded a DF of about 200 for sodium nitrate solutions with respect to cesium removal. When the concentration of ammonium nitrate in the waste exceeds 0.1M, the DF reduces. Entrained TBP as well as soluble TBP reduces the removal efficiency of cesium. This paper deals with the experimental data and mechanism of the processes involved in the removal of cesium and strontium.