In this paper the performances and the limitations of three multi-elementary analysis techniques are compared applied to a study of air pollution biomonitoring in Morocco. These techniques are: (1) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (14 MeV-NAA), (2) thermal neutron activation analysis using the k0 quasi-absolute method (k0-NAA) and (3) energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (ED-XRF). The experimental procedures and the control of the analytical results using certified reference materials are described and discussed. The three methods were confronted for the analysis of lichens, mosses and tree-barks. The complementarity of these methods enabled us to determine 43 elements in different samples. The most suitable method for each element was selected according to the sensitivity and selectivity necessitating the minimum corrections of the matrix effects and/or the interfering reactions.