The 11 th CITES Conference in 2000 decided to maintain a total worldwide ban on trade of elephant ivory. The 12 th Conference
in 2002 decided to allow a conditional trade in stockpiled ivory in 2004. Reopening of the ivory trade would require methods
to identify the origin of the ivory so that legal ivory can be distinguished from the black-market ones. In this study, we
describe the X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis of ivory samples from various regions of Africa and Southeast-Asia
to characterize ivory of the various elephant populations.