There is an increasing need in industry, arising from both economic and environmental considerations, to reduce costs and improve product quality through the use of automation. The use of on-line analysis instrumentation provides plant operators with a means for continuous measurement and rapid response. This can result in better control of process efficiency, product quality and resource utilization, all of which produce significant economic and environmental benefits. On-line measurement of bulk elemental composition is important in many industrial applications and is best achieved with highly penetrating neutron-gamma techniques. This paper presents recent work by CSIRO Minerals on the development and implementation of such a technique, NITA (neutron inelastic-scattering and thermal-capture analysis). NITA is distinct from the more common PGNAA (prompt neutron gamma activation analysis) technique in its use of fast neutron sources to generate inelastic scattering reactions, and in its consequent ability to excite gamma-rays from industrially important elements such as carbon and oxygen. The paper will compare the features of NITA and PGNAA analysers and will discuss applications of NITA in industry, including the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications and the on-conveyor belt monitoring of cement raw meal and coal.