XRF and TXRF were established as useful techniques for multi-element analysis of whole blood and human head hair samples.
Direct-XRF with different collimation units and different X-ray excitation modes was successfully used for the determination
of S, P, K, Ca, Fe, and Br elements in blood samples and K, Ca, Mn, Fe elements in human hair samples. Direct analysis by
TXRF was used for the determination of Rb and Sr in digested blood and human hair samples, respectively, while, the co-precipitation
method using APDC for TXRF analysis was used for the determination of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb elements in both matrices. As a result,
the improved XRF and TXRF methods were applied for multi-element determination of elements in whole blood and human hair samples
in non-occupational exposed population living in Damascus city. The mean concentrations of analyzed elements in both matrices
were on the reported range values for non-occupational population in other countries.