Environmental sampling (ES) is one of the measures applied in international nuclear safeguards. The detection capability of
safeguards ES relies on a combination of highly sensitive analytical techniques and resourceful data evaluation. The evaluation
process is dynamic, employing a variety of tools, information and analytical results. While the presence of uranium or plutonium
may be a significant finding in itself, high quality isotopic measurements are essential to associate the material with a
specific nuclear activity. This is illustrated in cases where the uranium detected appears to be “natural” or “near-natural”,
but in fact can be identified with various nuclear processes.