Authors:
Emilien Burger Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF), UMR 171, CNRS, Palais du Louvre, 4 quai François Mitterrand, 75001, Paris, France

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David Bourgarit Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF), UMR 171, CNRS, Palais du Louvre, 4 quai François Mitterrand, 75001, Paris, France

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Vincent Frotté CEA/DAM, Le Ripault, BP 16 F, 37260, Monts, France

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Fabien Pilon CEA/DAM, Le Ripault, BP 16 F, 37260, Monts, France

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Abstract

This article deals with one specific step of the copper extractive metallurgy process: the roasting of iron–copper sulphides. It aims at shedding light on an archaeological issue: the reconstruction of the copper extractive metallurgy processes during protohistory (IVe–IIe millennium BC). Experimental simulations are performed at laboratory scale by modelizing the conditions of protohistoric furnaces. Kinetic of roasting is studied by thermogravimetry combined with the physico-chemical analysis of synthetic products. The influence of two parameters is studied: (i) the temperature (773, 973 and 1173 K) and (ii) the granularity of the roasted ores (1 mm and 100 μm). In each case, the chemical mechanism governing the oxidation of iron copper sulphide is proposed. Apart from one extreme case ( = 1 mm; T = 773 K), it is showed that kinetic is controlled by the transport of molecular oxygen (O2) from the gas to the grain surface. Moreover, we prove that, in some cases where the diffusivity of gaseous oxygen is low, roasting can be accelerated by the presence of an oxide, which constitute an in-situ source of oxygen. Theses experiments support the hypothesis that such a technique could have allowed a roasting process where iron and sulfur were removed by the solid oxygen instead of the gaseous oxygen. These results allow to validate a one-step copper smelting process starting from sulphidic ores, and to identify the experimental parameters of this process.

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  • 24. Bourgarit, D, Rostan, P, Burger, E, Carozza, L, Artioli, G 2008 The beginning of copper mass production in the southern part of western Alps: the Saint-Véran mining area considered (Hautes-Alpes, France). Histor Metall 42 1 111.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)

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