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  • 1 Department of Geotechnology and Environmental Engineering, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Western Macedonia, Kila, 50100, Kozani, Greece
  • | 2 Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/José Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain
  • | 3 16th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities, Mitropoleos 25, 52100, Kastoria, Greece
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Abstract

Several plaster samples were collected from the wall paintings of post-Byzantine monuments from Kastoria town, northern Greece. They were analysed mainly by simultaneous thermal analysis (TG-DTG/DTA) and X-ray diffraction and supplementary by electron microscope (ESEM-EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. Whitish and dark plaster layers were evident in most cases. Calcite, micas, and quartz were the dominant minerals, while dolomite, gypsum, and feldspar were detected as minor phases in most of the samples. Hydromagnesite and chlinochlore were also determined in a few samples. The utilisation of the results for chronological purposes (i.e. for assignment of different painting periods) was also suggested and the presence of dolomite and hydromagnesite could be characteristic for the provenance of the raw material. Gypsum was regarded mainly as a weathering product due to sulfation process, and secondly as a binding material of the plaster. The thermoanalytical results are in good agreement with the mineralogical data. The white plasters are categorized as hydraulic lime mortars, while the dark ones as natural pozzolanic mortars. Calcite and gypsum correlates well with their respective mass losses at certain temperature ranges and their Raman spectra are clearly detected. ESEM-EDX revealed fine calcareous components with aluminolisilicate aggregates and the application of the fresco technique either as a multi-layer or a single-layer plaster. The deterioration caused by salts (gypsum, halite, and nitratine) and micro-organisms was also determined. The detrimental effect of the salt crystallization and dissolution was also confirmed using the so-called Peltier-stage experiment.

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  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)

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