View More View Less
  • 1 Xi'an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi'an 710065, China
Restricted access

Abstract

The eutectic ternary phase diagrams of some typical volatilizable energetic materials have been investigated by high pressure differential scanning calorimeter (PDSC). The ternary HX phase diagrams for TNT/TNAZ/DNTF (TTD) and TNAZ/DNTF/RDX (TDR) systems were constructed by the correlation of the apparent fusion heat with the composition (HX method). And, the ternary TX phase diagrams (the temperature dependence on composition) for the two ternary systems were constructed by calculating from the data of the five TX binary phase diagrams. The eutectic compositions (mol%) of TTD and TDR ternary systems were obtained to be 52.3/27.3/20.4 (HX method), 53.2/25.8/21.0 (TX method) and 54.9/39.6/5.5 (HX method), 55.1/42.2/2.7 (TX method), respectively. The eutectic temperatures of the ternary systems were obtained by PDSC determination and TX method calculation to be 76.5 and 76.7 °C, 47.5 and 50.2 °C, respectively. It is shown that the results obtained by two methods are in agreement and the error in measuring or calculating eutectic compositions and temperatures for the two ternary systems are within allowable ranges of ±3 mol% and ±3 °C, respectively. Moreover, by means of constructing two ternary HX phase diagrams with different fixed composition of a component and comparing the apparent fusion heat of eutectics with calculated one, the results obtained from HX method for TTD system were proved. The results showed that the gasification or volatilization of easy volatile materials could be efficiently restrained by high pressure atmosphere, and the perfectly and ideally HX ternary phase diagrams can be constructed. In comparison with TX method, HX method has as a virtue of being quick and simple, especially on constructing ternary phase diagram.

  • 1. Zhao, FQ, Chen, P, Hu, RZ, Luo, Y, Zhang, ZhZ, Zhou, YSh, Yang, Y, Gao, Y, Gao, ShL, Shi, QZh 2004 Thermochemical properties and non-isothermal decomposition reaction kinetics of 3, 4-dinitrofurazanfuroxan (DNTF) [J]. J Hazard Mater 113 1–3 6771.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Zheng, W, Wang, JN, Ren, XN, Chen, ZHQ, Tian, J, Zhou, YSh 2010 Thermal decomposition of 3,4-bis(4′-aminofurazano-3′) furoxan [J]. J Hazard Mater 177 1–3 738742 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Hu, HX, Zhang, ZhiZ, Wang, QH 2004 An investigation on property and application for the high energy density materials of 3,4-dinitrofurazanfuroxan (DNTF) [J]. Acta Armamentarii 25 2 155158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Spencer, W, Cady, HH 1981 The ammonium nitrate with 15 wt% potassium nitrate-ethylenediamine dinitrate-nitroguanidine system [J]. Propellants Explos 6:99103 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Yin, CM, Liu, ZR, Shao, YH et al. 1995 Measurement of the eutectic composition and temperature of energetic materials, Part 2. The HX-phase diagram of ternary systems [J]. Thermochim Acta 250:7783 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Kong, YH, Liu, ZR, Shao, YH et al. 1997 Measurement of the eutectic composition and temperature of energetic materials, Part 3. The TX-phase diagram of ternary systems [J]. Thermochim Acta 297:161168 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Liu, ZR 2008 Thermal analyses for energetic materials [M] National Defense Industry Press Beijing.

  • 8. Sikder, N, Sikder, AK, Bulakh, NR, Gandhe, BR 2004 1,3,3-Trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), a melt-cast explosive: synthesis, characterization and thermal behaviour [J]. J Hazard Mater 113 1–3 3543 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Wilcox, CF, Zhang, Y-X, Bauer, SH 2000 The thermochemistry of TNAZ (1,3,3-trinitroazetidine) and related species: models for calculating heats of formation [J]. J Mol Struct 528 1–3 95109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Shao YH , Ren XN, Liu ZR. An investigation on eutectic binary phase diagram of volatilizable material by high pressure DSC (PDSC) [J]. J Therm Anal Calorim (in press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Liu Y , Liu ZR, Yin CM. Binary phase diagram and eutectic composition of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ) [J]. Chin J Energ Mater 2004;supplement:22730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Ren XN , Heng ShY, Shao YH, et al. Study on the binary eutectic system of 3, 4-dinitrofurazanfuroxan [D]. In: Li S, et al, editors. Theory and practice of energetic materials, vol VIII. Beijing: Science Press USA Inc.; 2009. p. 5560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Liu ZR , Ren XN. Binary phase diagram for DNTF-TNT system. unpublished work.

  • 14. Liu, ZR, Shao, YH, Yin, CM et al. 1995 Measurement of the eutectic composition and temperature of energetic materials Part 1. The phase diagram of binary systems [J]. Thermochim Acta 250:6576 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Manuscript Submission: HERE

  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

For subscription options, please visit the website of Springer.

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)