View More View Less
  • 1 Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146, Genoa, Italy
Restricted access

Abstract

In this study, some results of previous studies concerning papyrus and paper, with special regard of artistic and archaeological materials, are reported and discussed. A historical introduction of such cellulose-based materials and of their use from the antiquity is presented first. The diagnostics and conservation aspects are discussed. The role of thermal analysis for a precise characterisation of these materials is illustrated. Complementary methods of investigation, such as optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and various types of spectroscopy are also considered. In addition, alteration or restoration processes may be usefully monitored by means of reflectance spectrophotometric measurements.

  • 1. Leach B , Tait J. Papyrus. In: Nicholson PT, Shaw I, editors. Ancient Egyptian Material and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009. p. 22753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Wiedemann HG , Muller UG, Bayer G. In: Proceedings of the Vth ICTA Conference, Kagaku Gijutsu-sha, Japan; 1977. p. 37380.

  • 3. Bayer, G, Wiedemann, HG. Thermoanalytical measurements in archaeometry. Thermochim Acta. 1983;69:167173. .

  • 4. Wiedemann, HG, Bayer, G. Papyrus. The paper of ancient Egypt. Anal Chem. 1983;55:1220A1230A.

  • 5. Basile C . I papiri carbonizzati di Ercolano, Istituto Internazionale del Papiro, Siracusa, 1994 III.

  • 6. Basile C , Di Natale A. Atti del II Convegno Nazionale di Egittologia e Papirologia, Siracusa, 1–3 Dic 1995 VII.

  • 7. Franceschi, E, Luciano, G, Carosi, F, Cornara, L, Montanari, C. Thermal and microscope analysis as a tool in the characterisation of ancient papyri. Thermochim Acta. 2004;418:3945. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Tsujiyama, S, Miyamori, A. Assignment of DSC thermograms of wood and its components. Thermochim Acta. 2000;351:177181. .

  • 9. Géraud, H. Essai sur les livres dans l’antiquité. Paris: Techener ed; 1840.

  • 10. Wattenbach, W. Das Schriftwesen im Mittelalter. Leipzig: Verlag von S. Hirzel; 1875.

  • 11. Davy J . The collected works of Sir Humphry Davy, edited by his brother John Davy, vol. VI. Miscellaneous papers and researches. London: Smith, Elder and Co. Cornhill; 1840.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Davy, H. Some observations and experiments on the papyri found in the ruins of Herculaneum. Phil Trans R Soc London. 1821;111:191208. .

  • 13. Davy H . Quarterly Journal of literature, science and the arts; 1819, vol VII. p. 156.

  • 14. Barrow WJ . Permanence/durability of the book—VII Physical and chemical properties of the book papers, 1507–1949. Virginia: Richmond; 1974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Calvini, P, Gorassini, A, Luciano, G, Franceschi, E. FTIR and WAXS analysis of periodate oxycellulose: evidence for a cluster mechanism of oxidation. Vib Spectrosc. 2006;40:177183. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Rowland SP , Cousins ER. Periodate oxidative decrystallization of cotton cellulose. J Polym Sci. 1966; Part A-14:79399.

  • 17. Franceschi E , Palazzi D, Pedemonte E. Thermoanalytical contribution to the study on paper degradation. Characterisation of oxidised paper. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2001;66:34958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Vicini, S, Princi, E, Luciano, G, Franceschi, E, Pedemonte, E, Oldak, D, Kaczmarek, H, Sionkowska, A. Thermal analysis and characterisation of cellulose oxidised with sodium methaperiodate. Thermochim Acta. 2004;418:123130. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Princi, E, Vicini, S, Pedemonte, E, Mulas, A, Franceschi, E, Luciano, G, Trefiletti, V. Thermal analysis and characterisation of cellulose grafted with acrylic monomers. Thermochim Acta. 2005;425:173179. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Princi, E, Vicini, S, Pedemonte, E, Arrighi, V, McEwen, I. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2005;80:369373. .

  • 21. Agarwal, RK. On the use of the Arrhenius equation to describe cellulose and wood pyrolysis. Thermochim Acta. 1985;91:343349. .

  • 22. Wu, Y, Dollimore, D. Kinetic studies of thermal degradation of natural cellulosic materials. Thermochim Acta. 1998;324:4957. .