View More View Less
  • 1 Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3, Canada
  • 2 Division of Manufacturing and Design of Wood and Bionanocomposites, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden
Restricted access

Abstract

Thermal properties of polylactic acid (PLA) filled with Fe-modified cellulose long fibers (CLF) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were studied using thermo gravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The Fe-modified CLFs and MCCs were compared with unmodified samples to study the effect of modification with Fe on electrical conductivity. Results from TG showed that the degradation temperature was higher for all composites when compared to the pure PLA and that the PLA composites filled with unmodified celluloses resulted in the best thermal stability. No comparable difference was found in glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm) between pure PLA and Fe-modified and unmodified CLF- and MCC-based PLA biocomposites. DMA results showed that the storage modulus in glassy state was increased for the biocomposites when compared to pure PLA. The results obtained from a femtostat showed that electrical conductivity of Fe-modified CLF and MCC samples were higher than that of unmodified samples, thus indicating that the prepared biocomposites have potential uses where conductive biopolymers are needed. These modified fibers can also be tailored for fiber orientation in a matrix when subjected to a magnetic field.

  • 1. Larenjeria, E, Carvalho, LH, Silva, SM, D’Almedia, JRM. Influence of fiber orientation on the mechanical properties of polyester/jute composites. J Reinf Plast Compos. 2006;25: 12 1269 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Alemdar, A, Sain, MM. Biocomposites from wheat straw nanofibers: morphology, thermal and mechanical properties. Compos Sci Technol. 2008;68:557565. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Petersson, L, Kvien, I, Oksman, K. Structure and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose whiskers nanocomposite materials. Compos Sci Technol. 2007;67:25352544. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Alemdar, A, Sain, MM. Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues—wheat straw and soy hulls. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:16641671. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Kvien, I, Oksman, K. Orientation of cellulose nanowhiskers in polyvinylalcohol. Appl Phys A. 2007;87:641 .

  • 6. Cranston, ED, Gray, DG. Formation of cellulose based electrostatic layer by layer film in magnetic field. Sci Tech Adv Mater. 2006;7:319 .

  • 7. Sugiyama, J, Chanzy, H, Maret, G. Orientation of cellulose microcrystals by strong magnetic fields. Macromolecules. 1992;25:4232 .

  • 8. Kim, J, Yun, S, Ounaies, Z. Discovery of cellulose as a smart material. Macromolecules. 2006;39:42024206. .

  • 9. Sundar, ST, Sain, MM, Oksman, K. Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and cellulose long fiber modified by iron salt. Carbohydr Polym. 2010;80:3543. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Hudaa, MS, Mohanty, K, Drazl, LT, Schut, E, Misra, TM. “Green” composites from recycled cellulose and poly(lactic acid): Physico-mechanical and morphological properties evaluation. J Mater Sci. 2005;40:42214229. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Teramoto, Y, Nishio, Y. Cellulose diacetate-graft-poly(lactic acid)s: synthesis of wide-ranging compositions and their thermal and mechanical properties. Polymer. 2003;44:27012709. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Suryanegara, L, Nakagaito, AN, Yano, H. The effect of crystallization of PLA on the thermal and mechanical properties of microfibrillated cellulose-reinforced PLA composites. Compos Sci Technol. 2009;69:11871192. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Nakagaito, AN, Fujimura, A, Sakai, T, Hama, Y, Yano, H. Production of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites from sheets obtained by a papermaking-like process. Compos Sci Technol. 2009;69:12931297. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Lewitus, D, McCarthy, S, Ophir, A, Kenig, S. The Effect of nanoclays on the properties of PLLA-modified polymers part 1: mechanical and thermal properties. J Polym Environ. 2006;14:171177. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Oksman, K, Skrifvars, M, Selin, JF. Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites. Compos Sci Technol. 2003;63:13171324. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Iwatake, A, Nogi, M, Yano, H. Cellulose nanofiber-reinforced polylactic acid. Compos Sci Technol. 2008;68:21032106. .

  • 17. Mathew, AP, Oksman, K, Sain, MM. Mechanical properties of biodegradable composites from poly lactic acid (PLA) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). J Appl Polym Sci. 2005;97:20142025. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Skopenko, VV, Amirkhanov, VM, Sliva, TY, Vasilchenko, IS, Anpilova, EL, Garnovskii, AD. Various types of metal complexes based on chelatingbeta-diketones and their structural analogues. Russ Chem Rev. 2004;73: 8 737 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Hegetschweiler, K, Hausherr-Primo, L, Koppenol, WH, Gramlich, V, Odier, L, Meyer, W, et al. A novel hexanuclear FeIII-cis-inositolato complexes as a model for Fe III-polyol interaction in aqueous solution. Angew Chem Int Ed. 1995;34: 20 2242 In English.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 0 0 0
Oct 2020 0 0 0
Nov 2020 1 1 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0
Jan 2021 0 0 0
Feb 2021 0 0 0
Mar 2021 0 0 0