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  • 1 Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Cienicas Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain
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Abstract

Resol resins are used in many industrial applications as adhesives and coatings, but few studies have examined their thermal degradation. In this work, the thermal stability and thermal degradation kinetics of phenol–formaldehyde (PF) and lignin–phenol–formaldehyde (LPF) resol resins were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG) in air and nitrogen atmospheres in order to understand the steps of degradation and to improve their stabilities in industrial applications. The thermal stability of samples was estimated by measuring the degradation temperature (Td), which was calculated according to the maximum reaction rate criterion. In addition, the ash content was determined at 800 °C in order to compare the thermal stability of the resol resin samples. The results indicate that 30 wt% ammonium lignin sulfonate (lignin derivative) as filler in the formulation of LPF resin improves the thermal stability in comparison with PF commercial resin. The activation energies of degradation of two resol resins show a difference in dependence on mass loss, which allows these resins to be distinguished. In addition, the structural changes of both resins during thermal degradation were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), with the results indicating that PF resin collapses at 300 °C whereas the LPF resin collapses at 500 °C.

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