Vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was used to measure the thermal hazard and runaway characteristics of 18650 lithium-ion batteries, which were manufactured by Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Runaway reaction behaviors of these batteries were obtained: 50% state of charge (SOC), and 100% SOC. The tests evaluated the thermal hazard characteristics, such as initial exothermic temperature (T0), self-heating rate (dT dt−1), pressure-rise rate (dP dt−1), pressure temperature profiles, maximum temperature, and pressure which were observed by adiabatic calorimetric methodology via VSP2 using customized test cells. The safety assessment of lithium-ion cells proved to be an important subject. The maximum self-heating rate (dT dt−1)max and the largest pressure-rise rate (dP dt−1)max of Sanyo 18650 lithium-ion battery of 100% SOC were measured to be 37,468.8 °C min−1 and 10,845.6 psi min−1, respectively, and the maximum temperature was 733.1 °C. Therefore, a runaway reaction is extremely serious when a lithium-ion battery is exothermic at 100% SOC. This result also demonstrated that the thermal VSP2 is an alternative method of thermal hazard assessment for battery safety research. Finally, self-reactive ratings on thermal hazards of 18650 lithium-ion batteries were studied and elucidated to a deeper extent.
1. Sato, N. Thermal behavior analysis of lithium batterier for electric and hybrid vehicles. J Power Sources. 2001;99:70–77. .
Zhang, Z, Fouchard, D, Rea, JR. Differential scanning calorimetry material studies: implications for the safety of lithium-ion cells. J Power Sources. 1998;70:16–20. 10.1016/S0378-7753(97)02611-6.)| false
Shu, CM, Yang, YJ. Using VSP2 to separate catalytic and self-decomposition reactionsfor hydrogen peroxide in the presence of hydrochloric acid. Thermochim Acta. 2002;392–3:259–269. 10.1016/S0040-6031(02)00109-0.)| false
MacNeil, DD, Christensen, L, Landuect, J, Paulsen, JM, Dahn, JR. An autocatalytic mechanism for the reaction of LixCoO2 in electrolyte at elevated temperature. J Electrochem. 2000;147:970–979. 10.1149/1.1393299.)| false
22. Richard, MN, Dahn, JR. Predicting electrical and thermal abuse behaviours of practical lithium-ion cells from accerelating rate calorimeter studies on small samples in electrolyte. J Power Sources. 1999;79:135–142. .
Richard, MN, Dahn, JR. Predicting electrical and thermal abuse behaviours of practical lithium-ion cells from accerelating rate calorimeter studies on small samples in electrolyte. J Power Sources. 1999;79:135–142. 10.1016/S0378-7753(99)00055-5.)| false