Thermal characterization of materials provides conclusions regarding the identification of materials as well as their purity and composition, polymorphism, and structural changes. Analytical experimental techniques for thermal characterization comprise of a group of techniques, in which physical properties of materials are ascertained through controlled temperature program. Among these techniques, traditional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-accepted technique for analyzing thermal transitions in condensed systems. Modulated DSC (MDSC) is used to study the same material properties as conventional DSC including: transition temperatures, melting and crystallization, and heat capacity. Further, MDSC also provides unique feature of increased resolution and increased sensitivity in the same measurement. “Hot disk thermal constant analyzer”, based on Transient Plane Source (TPS) technique, offers simultaneous measurement of thermal transport properties of specimen, which are directly related to heat conduction such as thermal conductivity (λ) and thermal diffusivity (χ). This method enables the thermal analysis on large number of materials from building materials to materials with high thermal conductivity like iron. The temperature range covered so far extends from the liquid nitrogen point to 1000 K and should be possible to extend further. This review also presents some interesting results of phase transition temperature of miscible (CPI/TPI) and immiscible (PS/PMMA) polymeric systems carried out through dynamic mechanical analyzer along with the thermal transport properties obtained for cis-polyisoprene (CPI), trans-polyisoprene (TPI), and their blends determined by TPS technique.
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