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  • 1 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84538, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • | 2 Forest Products Laboratory, United States Forest Service, Madison, WI, USA
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Abstract

Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of combustion (AEHC) was lowered by most of our treatments with the exception of BMIC (butylmethylimidazolium chloride)/starch (BMS). The average mass loss rate was lowered by all the treatments, but the most by the use of ZnCl2 and CaCl2 treatments. Mass losses were the least with SBE, CaCl2/NaOH/starch, and CaCl2/NaOH treatments. The BMS sample exhibited the greatest total heat release while SBE samples gave the smallest value of the parameter. The flame retarding effect of SBE was ascribed to the presence of ferulates which prevented the formation of volatile products by condensing into polycyclic aromatic residue.

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  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)

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