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  • 1 Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Ind., Via Risorgimento 35, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
  • | 2 Departamento de Conservação e Restauro, FCT/UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516, Caparica, Portugal
  • | 3 National Institute of Optics (INO) del CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy
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Abstract

This article presents a multi-analytical approach to investigating the drying, polymerisation and oxidative degradation of linseed oil, which had undergone various treatments known to be undertaken during the nineteenth century in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot then processed by different methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. The oil was prepared in 1999 within the framework of the MOLART project. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG), which yields macromolecular information, with gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DE-MS), which provide molecular information. This comparison enabled us to elucidate the role of pre-treatment on the composition of the oil. TG and oxygen uptake curves registered at a constant temperature helped us to identify the different physical behaviour of the oil samples, thus highlighting the presence of hydrolysed, oxidised and crosslinked fractions, as a consequence of the different pre-treatments. GC/MS was used to characterise the soluble and non-polymeric fraction of the oil, to calculate the ratios of palmitic to stearic acid (P/S), and azelaic to palmitic acid (A/P), and to further evaluate the effects of oil pre-treatments. DE-MS using chemical ionisation with CH4, enabled us to establish the chemical composition of the oil in different stages of ageing. DE-MS proved to be a useful tool for a simultaneous semi-quantitative characterisation of the free fatty acids, monoglycerids, diglycerides and triglycerides present in each sample. The combination of thermal analysis with GC/MS and DE-MS enabled a model to be developed, which unravelled how oil pre-treatments produce binders with different physical–chemical qualities.

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  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)

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