View More View Less
  • 1 Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Inorganic Technology, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, 532 10, Pardubice, Czech Republic
  • 2 Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i, Husinec-Řež 1001, 250 68, Řež, Czech Republic
Restricted access

Abstract

Thermal study and structural characterization of biological hydroxyapatite (HA) samples were done as well as their comparison with commercial and synthetic samples in this study. The X-ray micro analyser shows that all three samples of human teeth (HT1–HT3) contain two types of HA structures with different crystallite sizes, unlike sample of bovine thigh-bone (BTB). The bone sample was composed only of one HA phase with varied porosity. The molar Ca/P ratio in biological samples was lower compared to theoretical ratio for pure HA; moreover, in the case of teeth, Ca/P ratio varyies between the centre and the periphery of the cross-sectional samples. Thermogravimetry of the biological samples showed mass decreases—three regions for the bone and four regions for the teeth. In comparison, commercial HA has only two-step weight loss and synthetic HA three-step weight loss. After the calcination up to 1280 °C all the samples of teeth transformed into whitlockite, β-(Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2 (98 wt%) and 2 wt% HA. Besides, HT3 contained further trace amount of hilgenstockite (HIL, Ca4P2O9). The sample BTB partly transited from natural HA into HIL (6 wt%) and lime, CaO (14 wt%). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) proved occurrence of HIL (9 wt%) beside stability part HA (91 wt%) in the commercial HA after thermal treatment but the synthetic HA composed from Ca3(PO4)2 (74 wt%) and HA (26 wt%).

  • 1. Palmer, LC, Newcomb, CJ, et al. Biomimetic systems for hydroxyapatite mineralization inspired by bone and enamel. Chem Rev. 2008;108:47544783. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Dorozhkin, SV. Calcium orthophosphates in nature, biology and medicine. Materials. 2009;2:399498. .

  • 3. LeGeros, RZ. Formation and transformation of calcium phosphates: relevance to vascular calcification. Z Kardiol. 2001;90:116124. .

  • 4. Ito, A, Onuma, K. Crystal growth technology. London: Wiliam Andrew Publishing; 2003.

  • 5. Chen, ZF, Darvell, BW, Leung, VWH. Hydroxyapatite solubility in simple inorganic solutions. Arch Oral Biol. 2004;49:359367. .

  • 6. Yujiro, W, Toshiyuki, I, Yasushi, S. Type-A zeolites with hydroxyapatite surface layers formed by an ion exchange reaction. J Eur Ceram Soc. 2006;26:469474. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Reddy, MP, Venugopal, A. Hydroxyapatite photocatalytic degradation of calmagite (an azo dye) in aqueous suspension. Appl Catal B. 2007;69:164170. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Baillez, S, Nzihou, A, Bernache-Assolant, D. Removal of aqueous lead ions by hydroxyapatites: equilibria and kinetic processes. J Hazard Mater. 2007;139:443446. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Reddy, MP, Venugopal, A, Subrahmanyam, M. Hydroxyapatite-supported Ag-TiO2 as Escherichia coli disinfection photocatalyst. Water Res. 2007;41:379386. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Omelon, SJ, Grynpas, MD. Relationships between polyphosphate chemistry, biochemistry and apatite biomineralization. Chem Rev. 2008;108:46944715. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Rey, C, et al. Chemical diversity of apatites. Adv Sci Technol. 2006;49:2736. .

  • 12. Daculsi, G, Bouler, JM, LeGeros, RZ. Adaptive crystal formation in normal and pathological calcifications in synthetic calcium phosphate and related biomaterials. Int Rev Cytol. 1997;172:129191. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. LeGeros, RZ. Calcium phosphates in oral biology and medicine. Basel: Karger; 1991.

  • 14. Prakash, KH, et al. Apparent solubility of hydroxyapatite in aqueous medium and its influence on the morphology of nanocrystallites with precipitation temperature. Langmuir. 2006;22:1100211008. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Sanosh, KP, et al. Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite powder using sol–gel technique. Bull Mater Sci. 2009;32:465470. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Yoon, SY, et al. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite whiskers by hydrolysis of α-tricalcium phosphate using microwave heating. Mater Chem Phys. 2005;91:4853. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Earl, JS, et al. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite. J Phys Conf Ser. 2006;26:268271. .

  • 18. Kaloustian, J, et al. The use of thermal analysis in determination of some urinary calculi of calcium oxalate. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2002;70:959973. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Madhurambal, G, Subha, R, Mojumdar, SC. Crystallization and thermal characterization of calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate crystals. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;96:7376. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Paulik, F, et al. Investigation of the composition and crystal structure of bone salt by derivatography and infrared spectrophotometry. Hoppe Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem. 1969;350:418426. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Mezahi, FZ, et al. Dissolution kinetic and structural behaviour of natural hydroxyapatite vs. thermal treatment. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2009;95:2129. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Mitsionis, AI, Vaimakis, TC. A calorimetric study of the temperature effect on calcium phosphate precipitation. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2010;99:785789. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Holager, J. Thermogravimetric examination of enamel and dentin. J Dent Res. 1970;49:546548. .

  • 24. JCPDS PDF-2 database, release 54. Newton Sq.: International Centre for Diffraction Data; 2004.

  • 25. Diamanti, I, et al. Effect of fluoride and of calcium sodium phosphosilicate toothpastes on pre-softened dentin demineralization and remineralization in vitro. J Dent. 2010;38:671677. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Hattab, FN. The state of fluorides in toothpastes. J Dent. 1989;17:4754. .

  • 27. LeGeros, RY, Bonel, G, Legros, R. Types of H2O in human enamel and in precipitated apatites. Calcif Tiss Res. 1987;26:111118. .

  • 28. Wang, L, Nancollas, GH. Calcium orthophosphates: crystallization and dissolution. Chem Rew. 2008;108:46284669. .

  • 29. McConnell, D. Apatite. Vienna: Springer; 1973.

  • 30. Posner, AS. Crystal chemistry of bone mineral. Physiol Rev. 1969;49:760792.

  • 31. Shi, D. Biomaterials and tissue engineering. Berlin: Springer; 2004.

  • 32. Aras, NK, Yiimaz, G, Alkan, S, Korkusuz, F. Trace elements in human bone determined by neutron activation analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem. 1999;239:7986. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation