Tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6, C3A) containing 0–5% of Sn was synthesized by solid-state method, and the products were characterized by XRD technique. Differential thermo-analytical technique (DTA) along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the hydration behaviour of different C3A samples with and without the presence of gypsum. Results indicate that C3A can accommodate small amount of Sn in its structure and remaining amount forms SnO2. Hydration studies of the synthesized C3A shows that the additions of 0.5 and 1% Sn increase and 2% Sn decrease the reactivity of C3A at the initial period (<3 h) of hydration. Increasing additions of Sn also increase the amounts of amorphous phases and hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates in the cement pastes. The stabilities of these hydration products also increase with increasing content of Sn in C3A at the experimental conditions. The presence of Sn significantly changes the hydration of C3A and gypsum solid mixture at the initial period of hydration by enhancing the formation of more amounts of AFt and AFm phases. However, at the later stage of hydration (on or after 3 days), the hydration products in C3A and gypsum pastes with and without the presence of Sn are almost similar.
1. Dawson, B1992Emerging technologies for utilizing wastes in cement production. World Cem45:22–24.
Dawson, B1992Emerging technologies for utilizing wastes in cement production. World Cem45:22–24.)| false
4. Komljenovic, M, Petrasinovic-Stojkanovic, L, Bascarevic, Z, Jovanovic, N, Rosic, A2009Fly ash as the potential raw mixture component for Portland cement clinker synthesis. J Therm Anal Calorim96:363–368.
Komljenovic, M, Petrasinovic-Stojkanovic, L, Bascarevic, Z, Jovanovic, N, Rosic, A2009Fly ash as the potential raw mixture component for Portland cement clinker synthesis. J Therm Anal Calorim96:363–36810.1007/s10973-008-8951-0.)| false
Badanoiu, A, Paceagiu, J, Voicu, G2011Hydration and hardening processes of Portland cements obtained from clinkers mineralized with fluoride and oxides. J Therm Anal Calorim103:879–88810.1007/s10973-010-1125-x.)| false
Bonhoure, I, Wieland, E, Scheidegger, A, Ochs, M, Kunz, D2003EXAFS study of Sn (IV) immobilized by hardened cement paste and calcium silicate hydrates. Environ Sci Technol37:2184–219110.1021/es020194d.)| false
Prodjosantoso, AK, Kennedy, BJ, Hunter, BA2002Phase separation induced by hydration of the mixed Ca/Sr aluminates Ca3−xSrxAl2O3: a crystallographic study. Cem Concr Res32:647–65510.1016/S0008-8846(01)00737-2.)| false
Murat, M, Sorrentino, F1996Effect of large additions of Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn to cement raw meal on the composition and the properties of the clinker and the cement. Cem Concr Res26:377–38510.1016/S0008-8846(96)85025-3.)| false
Hidalgo, A, García, JL, Cruz Alonso, M, Fernández, L, Carmen, A2009Microstructure development in mixes of calcium aluminate cement with silica fume or fly ash. J Therm Anal Calorim96:335–34510.1007/s10973-007-8439-3.)| false
27. Saikia, N, Kato, S, Kojima, T2006Behaviour of B, Cr, Se, As, Pb, Cd and Mo present in waste leachates generated from combustion residues during the formation of ettringite. Environ Toxicol Chem25:1710–1719.
Saikia, N, Kato, S, Kojima, T2006Behaviour of B, Cr, Se, As, Pb, Cd and Mo present in waste leachates generated from combustion residues during the formation of ettringite. Environ Toxicol Chem25:1710–171910.1897/05-625R.1.)| false