View More View Less
  • 1 Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road 2, Dalian 116024, People's Republic of China
Restricted access

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the pyrolysis characteristics and gas product properties of printed circuit board (PCB) waste. For this purpose, a combination of Thermogravimetry-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (TG-FTIR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) techniques is employed. In the TG-FTIR experiment, a heating rate of 10 °C min−1 and a terminal pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C are applied. The thermal decomposition temperature, weight losses, and the temperature trend of evolving gaseous products of PCB waste are investigated. Py-GC/MS is used for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of the higher-molecular-weight volatile decomposition products. Associated with the analysis results of TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS for the volatile products, PCB waste degradation could be subdivided into three stages. The main products in the first stage (<293 °C) are H2O, CH4, HBr, CO2 and CH3COCH3. High-molecular-weight organic species, including bromophenols, bisphenol A, p-isopropenyl phenol, phenol, etc., mainly evolve in the second stage. In the last stage, at temperature above 400 °C, carbonization and char formation occur. This fundamental study provides a basic insight of PCB waste pyrolysis.

  • 1.

    Xiang, Y, Wu, P, Zhu, N, Zhang, T, Liu, W, Wu, J, Li, P. 2010. Bioleaching of copper from waste printed circuit boards by bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage. J Hazard Mater. 184:812818 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Murugan, RV, Bharat, S, Deshpande, AP, Varughese, S, Haridoss, P. 2008. Milling and separation of the multi-component printed circuit board materials and the analysis of elutriation based on a single particle model. Powder Technol. 183:169176 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Quan, C, Li, A, Gao, N, dan, Z. 2010. Characterization of products recycling from PCB waste pyrolysis. J Anal Appl Pyrol. 89:102106 .

  • 4.

    Cunliffe, AM, Williams, PT. 2003. Characterisation of products from the recycling of glass fibre reinforced polyester waste by pyrolysis. Fuel. 82:22232230 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Açıkalın, K. 2011. Thermogravimetric analysis of walnut shell as pyrolysis feedstock. J Therm Anal Calorim. 105:145150 .

  • 6.

    Aboulkas, A, Harfi, KE, Bouadili, AE, Nadifiyine, M. 2010. Study on the pyrolysis of Moroccan oil shale with poly (ethylene terephthalate). J Therm Anal Calorim. 100:323330 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Quan, C, Li, A, Gao, N. 2009. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on large particles of printed circuit board wastes. Waste Manage. 29:23532360 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Sarwar A , Khan MN, Azhar KF (2011) Kinetic studies of pyrolysis and combustion of Thar coal by thermogravimetry and chemometric data analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim. doi: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Loría-Bastarrachea, MI, Herrera-Kao, W, Cauich-Rodríguez, JV, Cervantes-Uc, JM, Vázquez-Torres, H, Ávila-Ortega, A. 2011. A TG/FTIR study on the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). J Therm Anal Calorim. 104:737742 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Mocanu, AM, Odochian, L, Apostolescu, N, Moldoveanu, C. 2010. TG-FTIR study on thermal degradation in air of some new diazoaminoderivatives. J Therm Anal Calorim. 100:615622 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Souza, BS, Moreira, APD, Teixeira, AMRF. 2009. TG-FTIR coupling to monitor the pyrolysis products from agricultural residues. J Therm Anal Calorim. 97:637642 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Arshad, M, Masud, K, Arif, M, Rehman, S, Arif, M, Zaidi, JH, Chohan, ZH, Saeed, A, Qureshi, AH. 2009. The effect of AlBr3 additive on the thermal degradation of PMMA. A study using TG-DTA-DTG, IR and PY-GC-MS techniques. J Therm Anal Calorim. 96:873881 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cai, GM, Yu, WD. 2011. Study on the thermal degradation of high performance fibers by TG/FTIR and Py-GC/MS. J Therm Anal Calorim. 104:757763 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Webb, M, Last, PM, Breen, C. 1999. Synergic chemical analysis-the coupling of TG with FTIR, MS and GC-MS 1. The determination of the gases released during the thermal oxidation of a printed circuit board. Thermochim Acta. 326:151158 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Blazsó, M, Czégény, Z, Csoma, C. 2002. Pyrolysis and debromination of flame retarded polymers of electronic scrap studied by analytical pyrolysis. J Anal Appl Pyrol. 64:249261 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Bassilakis, R, Carangelo, RM, Wójtowicz, MA. 2001. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis. Fuel. 80:17651786 .

  • 17.

    Balabanovich, A, Hornung, A, Merz, D, Seifert, H. 2004. The effect of a curing agent on the thermal degradation of fire retardant brominated epoxy resins. Polym Degrad Stab. 85:713723 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Biswas, B, Kandola, BK, Horrocks, AR, Price, D. 2007. A quantitative study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide evolution during thermal degradation of flame retarded epoxy resins. Polym Degrad Stab. 92:765776 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Marongiu, A, Bozzano, G, Dente, M, Ranzi, E, Faravelli, T. 2007. Detailed kinetic modeling of pyrolysis of tetrabromobisphenol A. J Anal Appl Pyrol. 80:325345 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Barontini, F, Marsanich, K, Petarca, L, Cozzani, V. 2005. Thermal degradation and decomposition products of electronic boards containing BFRs. Ind Eng Chem Res. 44:41864199 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Luda, MP, Balabanovich, AI, Camino, G. 2002. Thermal decomposition of fire retardant brominated epoxy resins. J Anal Appl Pyrol. 65:2540 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Manuscript Submission: HERE

  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

For subscription options, please visit the website of Springer.

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)