Neodymium zirconyl oxalate (NdZrOX) is prepared and characterized by chemical analysis and ir spectral studies. Its thermal decomposition has been investigated by using DTA, TG, DTG, X-ray diffraction and ir spectroscopy. On the basis of thermogravimetry and isothermal studies a probable mechanism for the decomposition is proposed. The decomposition proceeds mainly through three stages: i) dehydration between RT-413 K, ii) decomposition of oxalate between 413–943 K and iii) decomposition of the carbonate between 1028–1235 K to give a mixed oxide. The ir spectra and X-ray diffraction studies are made for identification of the intermediates. X-ray diffraction studies of the end product indicates that it belongs to cubic crystal system witha=11.520 Å.