The melting and crystallization of a sharply melting standard has been explored for the calibration of temperature-modulated
differential scanning calorimetry, TMDSC. Modulated temperature and heat flow have been followed during melting and crystallization
of indium. It is observed that indium does not supercool as long as crystal nuclei remain in the sample when analyzing quasi-isothermally
with a small modulation amplitude. For standard differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, the melting and crystallization temperatures
of indium are sufficiently different not to permit its use for calibration on cooling, unless special analysis modes are applied.
For TMDSC with an underlying heating rate of 0.2 K min−1 and a modulation amplitude of 0.5–1.5 K at periods of 30–90 s, the extrapolated onsets of melting and freezing were within
0.1 K of the known melting temperature of indium. Further work is needed to separate the effects originating from loss of
steady state between sample and sensor on the one hand and from supercooling on the other.